International Association for Cryptologic Research
Message Authentication Code (MAC) is one of most basic primitives in cryptography. After Biham (EUROCRYPT 1993) and Knudsen (AUSCRYPT 1992) proposed Related-Key Attacks (RKAs), RKAs have damaged MAC's security. To relieve MAC of RKA distress, Bellare and cash proposed Pseudo-Random Functions (PRFs) secure against multiplicative RKAs (CRYPTO 2010). They also proposed PRFs secure against additive RKAs, but their reduction requires sub-exponential time. Since PRF directly implies Fixed-Input Length (FIL) MAC, their PRFs result in MACs secure against multiplicative RKAs.