Springer Science+Business Media
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) such as the current Global Positioning System (GPS) or the future European Galileo system can provide a worldwide accurate positioning under an outdoor good environmental conditions. However, GNSS based positioning is not reliable in urban, tunnel, underbridge, indoor or underground environments due to the dense multipath effect as well as Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) signal energy attenuation. As it is known, MultiCarrier (MC) signals, e.g., Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signals, are robust against the multipath effect. Furthermore, they have a more efficient spectrum usage compared to the current golden codes, which thus leads to a SNR gain for range estimation.