International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (IJIRSET)
Wireless sensor networks have become increasingly popular due to their wide range of applications. Energy consumption is one of the biggest constraints of the wireless sensor node and this limitation combined with a typical deployment of large number of nodes has added many challenges to the design and management of wireless sensor networks. At high temperature the transmission power and sensitivity will decrease which leads to the degradation of wireless links. To avoid that the authors have implemented a hybrid routing protocol: Zonal-Stable Election Protocol (Z-SEP) for heterogeneous WSNs.