University of Crete
Current server architectures have started to move away from traditional memory buses that do not scale and towards point-to-point interconnects for communication among processors, memories, and I/O devices. As a result, memory modules are not equidistant from all cores leading to significant differences in memory access performance from different cores. Similar to memory modules, I/O devices are connected today to processor sockets in a NUMA manner. This results in NUMA effects for transfers between I/O devices and memory banks, as well as Processor I/O (PIO) accesses to I/O devices. This trend towards NUMA architectures increases complexity for buffer placement, device data transfers, and code execution, creating a complex affinity space.