On the Monitoring of System-Level Energy Consumption of Battery-Powered Embedded Systems
This paper addresses an approach for accurately measuring energy consumption on battery-powered embedded systems which can be adequately tuned in order to enhance a set of timing and energy consumption metrics for mission critical systems. The authors introduce a software-based accounting scheme which is calibrated by low-precision battery state-of-charge reads through a battery voltage model. They then perform an offline multi-objective optimization procedure using NSGA-II to find good candidates to the period at which battery consumption information should be updated. Such candidates might guarantee timing constraints (i.e., no deadline misses), minimize residual energy after a pre-defined system lifetime, and maximize system utilization.