Journal of Economics, Business and Management (JOEBM)
Shopper marketing is the new marketing practice that influences the moment of purchase (zero moments of truth). The essence of shopper marketing is that grasp an individual consumer behavior using identifying device, such as ID-POS and RFID. However, the author considers that shopper marketing is development of a product marketing technique unlike customer relationship marketing (e.g. one to one marketing). That is, shopper marketing is paradoxical. It is a reason why the directivity of shopper marketing is oriented product-centric rather than the individual, although using the purchase history data of the individual.