On the Prevalence and Characteristics of MPLS Deployments in the Open Internet
Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism that enables service providers to specify virtual paths through IP networks. The use of MPLS in the open Internet (i.e., public end-to-end paths) has important implications for users and network neutrality since MPLS is frequently used in traffic engineering applications today. In this paper, the authors present a longitudinal study of the prevalence and characteristics of MPLS deployments in the open Internet. They use path measurement data collected over the past 3.5 years by the CAIDA Archipelago project (Ark), which consist of over 10 billion individual trace-routes between hosts throughout the Internet.