Provided by: Creative Commons
Date Added: Oct 2014
In this paper, the authors describe the main activities involved in defining 4G technologies within the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) under the IMT-advanced banner, the work of the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) towards LTE-advanced. 3GPP standardized HSPA evolution (HSPA+) which was specified to deliver maximum user data rates up to 42Mbps by using dual carrier aggregation and 64 QAM in the downlink. However, there is no clear dividing line between the technology generations and this confusion is exacerbated by the terms 3.5G or 3.9G which are often used to describe evolutions of 3G technologies such as HSPA+, LTE (3GPP release 8) or Wi-MAX release 1.5.