University at Buffalo
In this paper, the authors present PHAD - a phishing avoidance and detection tool that uses robust invisible watermarking to watermark the logo image of a website with its domain name. The assumption behind this is that phishers copy the content of the legitimate website including the logo image. However the domain name of the attacker will be different from that of the legitimate site. On the client side, PHAD extracts the hidden watermark in the logo and compares it to the domain name. If they match then the website is deemed legitimate else a warning message appears in the browser.