Information security is the process of protecting information. It protects its availability, privacy and integrity. Access to stored information on computer databases has increased greatly. More companies store business and individual information on computer than ever before. Much of the information stored is highly confidential and not for public viewing. Cryptography is the science of writing in secret message and is an ancient art. In data and telecommunications, cryptography is necessary when communicating over any untrusted medium, which includes just about any network, particularly over the internet.