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Integrated Circuits (ICs) are often produced in foundries that lack effective security controls. In these foundries, sophisticated attackers are able to insert malicious Trojan circuits that are easily hidden in the large, complex circuitry that comprises modern ICs. These so-called Trojan circuits are capable of launching attacks directly in hardware, or, more deviously, can facilitate software attacks. Current defense against Trojan circuits consists of statistical detection techniques to find such circuits before product deployment. The fact that statistical detection can result in false negatives raises the obvious questions: can attacks be detected post-deployment.