International Journal of Engineering and Technology
The mobile node can experience disruptions of an ongoing real-time session due to handovers in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services. The duration of such interruptions is called disruption time or handover delay and this is very annoying to user. Therefore, this delay needs to be minimized to provide good-quality VoIP services. In this paper, the focus is on the network layer mobility, specifically on Mobile Internet Protocols (MIPs), since they are natural candidates for providing mobility at layer 3.