National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
RFID tags are getting their presence noticeable on Smartphones, credit cards, toll payment devices, and other objects. They are expected to become an important tool for e-commerce, logistics, point-of-sale transactions, and so on, representing \"Things\" and \"Human holding things\" in transactions. Since a huge amount of tags are expected to be needed to be attached to various \"Objects\", a low-cost tag manufacturing is necessary. Thus, it is hard to imagine they will implement hardware protection mechanisms (like co-processor, TPMs). Therefore, side-channel (leakage) attacks are a critical threat.