Association for Computing Machinery
DRAM has been a de facto standard for main memory, and advances in process technology have led to a rapid increase in its capacity and bandwidth. In contrast, its random access latency has remained relatively stagnant, as it is still around 100 CPU clock cycles. Modern computer systems rely on caches or other latency tolerance techniques to lower the average access latency. However, not all applications have ample parallelism or locality that would help hide or reduce the latency. Moreover, applications' demands for memory space continue to grow, while the capacity gap between last level caches and main memory is unlikely to shrink.