A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has important applications such as remote environmental monitoring and target tracking. This has been enabled by the availability, particularly in recent years, of sensors that are smaller, cheaper, and intelligent. These sensors are equipped with wireless interfaces with which they can communicate with one another to form a network. The design of a WSN depends significantly on the application, and it must consider factors such as the environment, the application's design objectives, and cost, hardware, and system constraints. The paper present a comprehensive review of the recent literature in wireless sensor network. This paper reviews the major development and new research challenges in this area.