North Carolina State University
Embedded systems are increasingly deployed in harsh environments that their components were not necessarily designed for. As a result, systems may have to sustain transient faults, i.e., both single-bit soft errors caused by radiation from space and transient errors caused by lower signal/noise ratio in smaller fabrication sizes. Hardware can protect and even correct transient faults at the cost of redundant circuits. Software approaches can also protect/correct these faults, e.g., by instruction duplication or algorithmic design.