Network applications and services today are nearly unrecognizable from a few decades ago. The diversity, scale, and dynamic evolution of apps, services, data, and devices have led to a corresponding evolution within service provider environments. Public, private, and hybrid clouds are ascendant. Software-based approaches to more agile network management and efficiency are being pioneered by industry standards bodies. As for hardware, a transition where multiple processor architectures, Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs), and boutique implementations popular a decade ago have consolidated to just a few architectures (predominantly ARM and x86) has helped lower hardware and software costs.