Michigan State University
Despite evidence that lack of interoperable information systems results in enormous costs, development, implementation, and effective use of Inter-Organizational information Systems (IOS) remains an elusive goal for many companies. Lack of interoperability across systems is especially problematic for manufacturers dependent on global supply chains. The authors develop propositions about the characteristics of IOS that affect information transparency in supply chains. Specifically, they propose that data and process standards are necessary, but not sufficient, to solve such information transparency problems. Instead, standards need to be complemented by hub-type information technology architectures that are shared by organizations participating in an industrial field, not just by the participants in one manufacturer's supply chain.