Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology
The energy efficiency and improvement in network's lifetime are some of the critical issues in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Remote environmental monitoring and target tracking are the important applications of a wireless sensor network. In this paper, TSAAC (Threshold Sensitive Assistant Aided Clustering) a heterogeneous protocol using Niching Particle Swarm Optimization (NPSO), for wireless sensor networks is proposed. It employs three levels of heterogeneity with cluster head being selected optimally based on the fitness function of NPSO, which is an important technique for multimodal optimization.