Underground Wireless Sensor Network Communication Using Electromagnetic Waves Resonates at 2.5 GHz
A comprehensive study of electromagnetic waves underground propagation for a wireless sensor network is introduced in this paper. A mathematical model for path loss due to attenuation of electromagnetic waves propagating in different types of soil is given. Reflection from the air-soil interface as a function of distance between sensors and soil depth is also introduced. Three different types of soil, sandy, loamy and magnetite soil are studied. A high gain antenna is required to overcome the high value of path loss.