Understanding Fraudulent Activities in Online Ad Exchanges
Online advertisements (ads) provide a powerful mechanism for advertisers to effectively target web users. Ads can be customized based on a user's browsing behavior, geographic location, and personal interests. There is currently a multi-billion dollar market for online advertising, which generates the primary revenue for some of the most popular websites on the internet. In order to meet the immense market demand, and to manage the complex relationships between advertisers and publishers (i.e., the websites hosting the ads), marketplaces known as \"Ad exchanges\" are employed. These exchanges allow publishers (sellers of ad space) and advertisers (buyers of this ad space) to dynamically broker traffic through ad networks to efficiently maximize profits for all parties.