Polytechnic of Turin
The operation of achieving authenticated key agreement between two human-operated devices over a short-range wireless communication channel (such as Bluetooth or WiFi) is referred to as \"Pairing\". The devices in such a scenario are ad hoc in nature, i.e., they can neither be assumed to have a prior context (such as pre-shared secrets) with each other nor do they share a common trusted on- or off-line authority. However, the devices can generally be connected using auxiliary physical channel(s) (such as audio, visual, etc.) that can be authenticated by the device user(s) and thus form a basis for pairing.