King Abdulaziz University
In the current time and next decades, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) represents a new category of ad hoc networks consisting of small nodes with three functions: sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue to improve the overall performance of WSN. There are many approaches and techniques explored for the optimization of energy usage in wireless sensor networks. Routing represents one of these areas in which attempts for efficient utilization of energy have been made. In this paper, the authors report on the current state of the research on optimizing the performance of WSN using various advanced approaches.