Verifying Computations with State
When a client outsources a job to a third party (e.g., the cloud), how can the client check the result, without re-executing the computation? Recent paper in proof-based verifiable computation has made significant progress on this problem by incorporating deep results from complexity theory and cryptography into built systems. However, these systems work within a stateless model: they exclude computations that interact with RAM or a disk, or for which the client does not have the full input. This paper describes pantry, a built system that overcomes these limitations.