If you look up the word hobbit in the Oxford English Dictionary, you’ll find the following definition:
hobbit /ˈhɒbɪt/ noun : a member of an imaginary race similar to humans, of small size and with hairy feet, in stories by J. R. R. Tolkien. Origin: 1937: invented by Tolkien in his book The Hobbit, and said by him to mean ‘hole-dweller’
Now, when the world’s most authoritative dictionary of the English language says you invented a word, that’s no small matter. Doubly so for an icon like Tolkien, who was a philologist — a scholar of historical language — long before he conjured up some of the foundational work of epic high fantasy fiction. Triply so when you consider that the ownership of words like hobbit — attached as they are to billion-dollar movie franchises — can literally determine the economics of whole countries.
There’s just one problem: The word hobbit predates Tolkien by centuries.
First, there is the basic etymology. The prefix hob has been associated with supernatural creatures of diminutive size for hundreds of years. No less an authority than Shakespeare described the fairy mischief-maker Puck as a hobgoblin within the folios of “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” — and that’s a good 340 years before The Hobbit was written. Similar terms, some of them very close to hobbit, appear in works that predate Tolkien by nearly as many years.
Of course, that isn’t an explicit use of the word hobbit, so Tolkien defenders can claim he coined the phrase even if conceding he didn’t spin the word from whole cloth. There’s just one problem with that line of reasoning, too. An explicit, well-documented use of the word hobbit predates Tolkien’s creation by well over 100 years.
WHAT USE OF THE WORD HOBBIT PREDATES TOLKIEN’S BY MORE THAN A CENTURY?