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Can't understand Protocols

By curetgabriel ·
Hi,
I try installing Ubuntu Server 8.10, and i tell u, installation when just fine. I get stuck on the part where u need to configure /etc/network/interfaces, that, because i need the server to have a static IP. I have ADSL connection, and IP's are assing by the modem/router (Thompson SpeedTouch). IP's are configure as "start 10.0.0.34 - end 10.0.0.134" "sbnetmask 255.255.255.0" that's in the modem/router, and obvious it gives me the router IP number. Now, if i want to assing a static IP to the server it should be some like "10.0.0.3" SM "255.255.255.0" and what is Broadcast, Network and some other's that has to be edited with "VIM". I mean, im from windows xp, and i want to host my own web page, and mail server, plus some sharing files locally, maybe log-on remotelly... that's all i want; but this part is killing me. anyone willing to help please? thanks in advanced.

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IP

by oldbaritone In reply to Can't understand Protocol ...

First, BEFORE you put a server on the internet, check with your ISP. Are you allowed to do that? Many ISP's forbid providing servers from subscriber clients. CHECK BEFORE YOU DO IT!

From what you've said, it looks like your local network is 10.0.0.x, and the router is handing out up to 100 DHCP assignments in the range 10.0.0.34-10.0.0.134; the netmask "255.255.255.0" means that the first three numbers must match, and the last number can be anything 0-255, in order to be considered as "local". All "Non-local" requests will be sent to the default gateway.

Before setting up a static address, you might want to check the router to see if it supports IP assignments or reservations. If so, just choose an IP, enter the MAC address for the machine into the router, and leave Ubuntu set to "DHCP" for everything. That way, the router will handle any changes that come from your ISP - like DNS Servers, and the router will send the necessary configuration to your server during boot.

If you MUST set up a static address, you should find out what address the router itself is using. (First guess - 10.0.0.1) That will be the "default gateway". Also, some routers ignore static IP's if the router is acting as a DHCP server, so you may have to do additional configuration in the router. Sometimes routers won't respond to DNS queries from static addresses. The "Broadcast Address" is the last address in your subnet, "all ones", in this case, 10.0.0.255 (If this sounds confusing, create a reservation for the server, in the router, and use DHCP for the server!)

Find out what the router is using for DNS, then enter the server's IP, NM, default gateway, and DNS into the appropriate fields in Ubuntu. (Again, DHCP is preferable for newbies - the router will set necessary values automatically; less chance of error. Have I said that enough times yet?) Probably, 10.0.0.3 is OK, but maybe not. NM 255.255.255.0, gateway 10.0.0.1 (or whatever it is)

Then you'll need to go into the router setup, and enable port forwarding. BE CAREFUL! Opening ports through the router exposes your computer to hackers from the whole world!

Mail servers are not for amateurs - hackers will have you forwarding SPAM within minutes. File sharing is best kept internal-only, for the same reason. If hackers can send files to you, you WILL have viruses on your system within a few seconds or minutes. You WILL become part of their Bot-net.

Open ONLY the ports you ABSOLUTELY need - like port 80 for http.

I'd suggest that you consider a "secure" option for the other functions, such as SSH, if you really need to share the other functions on the internet. Set up SSH with a ROBUST password - at least 32 characters including upper/lower case, numbers AND punctuation. For SSH, open port 22. Everything else you want to do can be tunneled through SSH, securely. Free SSH clients and servers are available for both Windows and Linux. (The password doesn't need to be hard to remember, just robust - like "John Doe-01/29/2010-123 Main St., Anytown, CA 93950-7183 (407) 555-1234" Long, varied, unpredictable)

Then, in the router, forward those ports to the static address you chose, and enable them.

There are many "Dynamic DNS" services available free, like no-ip or dyndns. Some Routers will support them natively. Using this service will enable you to find your system from anywhere, even if the IP changes. Dynamic DNS has saved me several times, when I was away for several days and something happened that caused the ISP to re-boot and start assigning new IP's to all the clients. Thunderstorms and power outages do that sometimes.

It's really handy to be able to access your home network from the outside. But whenever you open a firewall, you're exposing yourself to the heat. BE CAREFUL!

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2nd that

by ---TK--- In reply to IP

I would suggest first getting the desktop version, since you are new at this... then turn it into a sever... install open SSH, apache, and google webmin. Webmin will make an https site that you log into, and you can manage all your services. Including installing other services...

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THANKS

by curetgabriel In reply to 2nd that

Oldbaritone and TK, thanks for ur adviced. Is truth, once i open a single port in a firewall i'll be "exposed to the heat". Said that, i have decide not to do what i had planned, then again "it is not for amature's". In the other hand, i did called the ISP and they said it was no problem as long as i take full responsibility of the out come (what you metioned Oldbaritone). TK, can you write me a bit more about your suggestion? please! Once againg, im very greatfull for all ya help!

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de nada.

by oldbaritone In reply to THANKS
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question

by curetgabriel In reply to de nada.

Hi Olbaritone, i was reading again the post from "TK", i already got ubuntu desktop installed but i don get the rest. Is gonna be now sharing files internally (lan), maybe still login remotely in case i need a file from the, what's gonna be the server, and as a backup server. Can u clear me on that. Thanks in advanced!!!!!!

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