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Blogs for Software Quality Professionals & CSQA Aspirants

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

Hello everyone,<br />
<br />
I've already started my blog about Quality Assurance & also one blog for CSQA aspirants.<br />


I've found out there is a dearth of study resources for CSQA as of date.
The best thing I could imagine is to put my notes on the web so that all the CSQA aspirants can find it useful.

I am putting my study notes online on the following blog :

<br />
<br />
<a href="http://CSQA.blogspot.com">http://CSQA.blogspot.com

</a><br />
<br />
Note that this is useful for Certified Software Test Engineer (CSTE) aspirants too.

Please post your comments or doubts at that particular post/topic in
the blog so that it will be useful for all those visiting the CSQA blog.

I really hope it will be useful for many.By the way, is there any one who has tech notes as their blog?<br /><br />
Regards,
<br />
Prasanna Kumar<br />
 ----------------
<br />
<a href="http://ITsQualityAssurance.blogspot.com">http://ITsQualityAssurance.blogspot.com</a>
<br />
<a href="http://CSQA.blogspot.com">http://CSQA.blogspot.com</a>

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Blogs for Software Quality Professionals & CSQA Aspirants

by taherkapadia In reply to Blogs for Software Qualit ...

<p>Dear Tech Republic users,</p>
<p>There is also a website I have created to form the community ( FORUMS, BLogs ) of CSQA & CSTE professionals. The site is</p>
<p><a href="http://csqa.info">http://csqa.info</a> </p>
<p>Hope you find this site useful, as it has some answers to subjective question, links to resources, List of books you can refer, Forums, Articles, Question bank etc.</p>
<p>Also you can create your own blog here and get noticed amongst the QA community.</p>
<p>Regards</p>
<p> </p>

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CSQA Aspirants - Dont worry

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Well,<br />
<br />I've found out there is a dearth of material for CSQA.<br />This is my sincere attempt to put whatever I can about CSQA here.<br />I wish this blog becomes the shelter for many CSQA aspirants.<br />
<br />Wish me all the best for this attempt.<br />
<br />Thanx</div><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/06/csqa-aspirants-dont-worry.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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Cost of Quality

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/1600/SW%20Quality%20Iceberg.jpg"><img style="margin: 0px auto 10px; display: block; text-align: center; cursor: pointer;" src="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/400/SW%20Quality%20Iceberg.jpg" alt="" border="0" /></a><br />Just came across this S/W Quality Icerberg - showing the importance of internal Quality maintenance which is invisible to the external agent. Looking at this iceberg, the amount by which the Orgnanisation spends towards reducing the Cost of Poor Quality should idealy be more compared to the cost incurred in meeting the external defects identified.<br /><br /> Read more on this Quality Icerberg here:<br /> <a href="http://www.asq.org/pub/qualityprogress/past/0501/qp0501defeo.pdf">http://www.asq.org/pub/qualityprogress/past/0501/qp0501defeo.pdf</a><br /><br />The Total Quality View is given in the figure below. Realize from the figure that as the emphasis on Prevention & Appraisal Cost is increasing, the failure cost is reducing at a linear slope. Also see the slope of the Prevention & Appraisal Cost is less than that of the Cost of Failure which clearly indicates the cost reduction because of the difference in slope gives you the net profit. Also shown below is the ideal divisions among the different Costs of Quality.<br /><br /><br /> <a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/1600/COQ-Cost%20Curves5.gif"><img style="margin: 0pt 10px 10px 0pt; float: left; cursor: pointer;" src="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/200/COQ-Cost%20Curves1.gif" alt="" border="0" /></a><a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/1600/COQ-Prevention-Apprisal-Failure5.jpg"><img style="margin: 0pt 0pt 10px 10px; float: right; cursor: pointer;" src="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/320/COQ-Prevention-Apprisal-Failure3.jpg" alt="" border="0" /></a><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Interested ones can go to this to find out why more organisations cannot use it effectively.<br /> <a href="http://www.asq.org/ed/conferences/aqc/public_proceedings/57_2003/19384.pdf"> http://www.asq.org/ed/conferences/aqc/public_proceedings/57_2003/19384.pdf</a><br /> <a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/1600/COQ-Cost%20Curves5.gif"> </a><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/06/cost-of-quality.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.B.1 - Cost of Quality & it's Components

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<p style="font-family:georgia;"> </p> <p face="georgia"> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="font-family:georgia;"><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">Cost of Quality (COQ)</span> is one of the very important <span style="font-weight: bold;">sub domain of the Knowledge Domain-1 in the CSQA BOK</span>. Getting this concept clarified is very important for any QA Professional and more importantly for CSQA aspirants. I am starting here with the definitions and the best possible sources here on COQ.<br /><br /></span><span style="font-size:100%;"><b><span style="color: rgb(0, 24, 148);">Cost Of Quality</span></b></span><span style="font-size:100%;"><br /><br /></span><span style="font-size:100%;">The cost associated with the quality of a work product.</span><br /><span style="font-size:100%;"><br />As defined by Crosby ("Quality Is Free"), Cost Of Quality (COQ) has two main components: *Cost Of Conformance* and *Cost Of Non-Conformance* (see respective definitions).<br /><br />Cost of quality is the amount of money a business loses because its product or service was not done right in the first place. From fixing a warped piece on the assembly line to having to deal with a lawsuit because of a malfunctioning machine or a badly performed service, businesses lose money every day due to poor quality. For most businesses, this can run from 15 to 30 percent of their total costs.<o></o></span></p> <div style="border-style: none none solid; padding: 0in 0in 1pt;font-family:georgia;"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="border: medium none ; padding: 0in;"><span style="font-size:100%;"><b><span style="color: rgb(0, 24, 148);">Cost of Poor Quality - COPQ</span></b></span><span style="font-size:100%;"><br /><br />COPQ consists of those costs which are generated as a result of producing defective material.<br /><br />This cost includes the cost involved in fulfilling the gap between the desired and actual product/service quality. It also includes the cost of lost opportunity due to the loss of resources used in rectifying the defect. This cost includes all the labor cost, rework cost, disposition costs, and material costs that have been added to the unit up to the point of rejection. <b style="">COPQ does not include detection and prevention cost.<br /></b></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="border: medium none ; padding: 0in;"><span style="font-size:100%;"><b style="">There usually goes confusion between these two definitions COQ and COPQ.<br /></b></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="border: medium none ; padding: 0in;"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:100%;"><em>Cost of quality (COQ)</em> is actually a phrase coined by Philip Crosby, noted quality expert and author and originator of the ?zero defects? concept, to refer to the costs associated with providing poor-quality products or services. Many quality practitioners thus prefer the term <em>cost of poor quality (COPQ).<o></o></em></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:100%;">To illustrate the impact this can have on the workforce can not be underestimated. With a little imagination you could imagine the impact of storing all scrap for one year then presenting it as an "in-your-face" visual presentation tactic at a business improvement initiative.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="border: medium none ; padding: 0in;"> </p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:100%;"><b><span style="color: rgb(0, 24, 148);">Cost Of Conformance</span></b></span><span style="font-size:100%;"><br /><br />(COC) A component of the *Cost Of Quality* for a work product. Cost of conformance is the total cost of ensuring that a product is of good *Quality*. It includes costs of *Quality Assurance* activities such as standards, training, and processes; and costs of *Quality Control* activities such as reviews, audits, inspections, and testing.<br /><br />COC represents an organisation's investment in the quality of its products.<br /><br /><b><span style="color: rgb(0, 24, 148);">Cost Of Non-Conformance</span></b></span><span style="font-size:100%;"><br /><br />(CONC.) The element of the *Cost Of Quality* representing the total cost to the organisation of failure to achieve a good *Quality* product.<br /><br />CONC includes both in-process costs generated by quality failures, particularly the cost of *Rework*; and post-delivery costs including further *Rework*, re-performance of lost work (for products used internally), possible loss of business, possible legal redress, and other potential costs.</span></p></div> <p face="georgia"><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:100%;" >Cost of Quality (COQ )</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><br /></span></p> <span style=";font-family:georgia;font-size:100%;" > 1. Cost of Control (Conformance) </span> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li><span style="font-size:100%;"> Prevention Cost</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:100%;"> Appraisal Cost</span></li> </ul> <span style=";font-family:georgia;font-size:100%;" >2. Cost of not controlling (Non-conformance) </span> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li><span style="font-size:100%;">Internal Failure Cost</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><br /> </span> </li> <li><span style="font-size:100%;">External Failure Cost</span></li> </ul> <p style="font-family: georgia;"><span style="font-size:100%;"><b><i>Wanna know the definitons more clearly? Here they are:</i></b></span></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:100%;">Four categories of costs contribute to an organization?s overall COQ: </span></p> <ol start="1" type="1"> <li class="MsoNormal" style=""><span style="font-size:100%;"><strong>Internal failure costs</strong> - costs associated with defects found before the customer receives the product or service </span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style=""><span style="font-size:100%;"><strong>External failure costs</strong> - costs associated with defects found after the customer receives the product or service </span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style=""><span style="font-size:100%;"><strong>Appraisal costs</strong> - costs incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements</span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style=""><span style="font-size:100%;">Prevention Costs - Costs incurred to keep failure and appraisal costs to minimum.<br /> </span> </li> </ol> <span style="font-size:100%;"><strong></strong></span><span style="font-size:100%;"><b style="color: rgb(51, 51, 153);"><i>Table - Examples of Quality Costs Associated with Software Products</i></b></span> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width: 465pt;font-family:georgia;" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="620"> <tbody><tr style="height: 1pt;"> <td style="padding: 3.75pt; width: 49.2%; height: 1pt;" valign="top" width="49%"> <p style="text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="font-size:100%;"><b><i><span style="font-size:130%;">Prevention</span> <o></o></i></b></span></p> </td> <td style="padding: 3.75pt; width: 49.84%; height: 1pt;" valign="top" width="49%"> <p style="text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="font-size:130%;"><b><i>Appraisal</i></b></span><span style="font-size:100%;"> <o></o></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="height: 156.75pt;"> <td style="padding: 3.75pt; width: 49.2%; height: 156.75pt;" valign="top" width="49%"> <ul> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Statistical Process Control<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Capability/feasibility studies<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Improvement programmes<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Preventive actions<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Consultancies<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Training<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Procedures/Work instructions<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Communications<br /> </span></li> <li><span style="font-size:100%;">. </span><span style="font-size:100%;">Calibration systems<o></o></span></li> </ul> </td> <td style="padding: 3.75pt; width: 49.84%; height: 156.75pt;" valign="top" width="49%"> <ul type="disc"><li class="MsoNormal" style=""><span style="font-size:100%;">Inspection<o></o></span></li></ul> <ul> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Design review</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Code inspection</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Audit (internal & external)</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><o></o></span></li> </ul> <ul type="disc"><li class="MsoNormal" style=""><span style="font-size:100%;">Testing<o></o></span></li></ul> <ul> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Glass box testing</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Black box testing</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Training testers</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Beta testing</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Test equipment & automation</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Usability testing</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Pre-release out-of-box testing by customer service staff</span><span style="font-size:100%;"><o></o></span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr style="height: 9.15pt;"> <td style="padding: 3.75pt; width: 49.2%; height: 9.15pt;" valign="top" width="49%"> <p style="text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="font-size:130%;"><b><i>Internal Failure <o></o></i></b></span></p> </td> <td style="padding: 3.75pt; width: 49.84%; height: 9.15pt;" valign="top" width="49%"> <p style="text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="font-size:130%;"><b><i>External Failure</i></b></span><span style="font-size:100%;"> <o></o></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="height: 77.1pt;"> <td style="padding: 3.75pt; width: 49.2%; height: 77.1pt;" valign="top" width="49%"> <ul> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Rectification<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Scrap<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Rework<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Concessionary work<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Investigations<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Corrective Actions<o></o></span></li> </ul> </td> <td style="padding: 3.75pt; width: 49.84%; height: 77.1pt;" valign="top" width="49%"> <ul> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Rectifying returned products<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Replacements<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Warranty claims<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Complaints<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Site repairs<o></o></span></li> <li><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:100%;"><span style="">?<span style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: normal; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal;"> </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span style="font-size:100%;">Lost custom/reputation<o></o></span><span style="font-size:100%;"><br /> </span></li> <li><span style="font-size:100%;">. Legal ramifications<o></o></span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table><span style="font-size:100%;"><br /></span><span style=";font-family:Georgia;font-size:100%;" >The minimum total cost,for example is shown below as being achieved at 98% perfection. This percentage is also known as best practice. That is, the cost of achieving an improvement outweighs the benefits of that improvement.<o></o></span> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:100%;"><a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/1600/COQ%20-%20Accurate%20Cost%20Curves.jpg"><img style="margin: 0px auto 10px; display: block; text-align: center; cursor: pointer;" src="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/320/COQ%20-%20Accurate%20Cost%20Curves.jpg" alt="" border="0" /></a></span></p> <span style="font-size:100%;">In my previous post, similar cost curve created doubts to few as the X-axis was labelled "Defects" there. In fact it is the Degree of perfection achieved towards the individual curves like Appraisal, Prevention etc. In few instances, this axis is taken with increasing Quality of Design.<br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;">Sources referred:<br /></span></span><a href="http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/glossary"><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:100%;" >http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/glossary</span></a><br /><b style="color: rgb(51, 0, 51);"><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:10;" a style="font-family: georgia;" href="http://www.asq.org/topics/coq.html">http://www.asq.org/topics/coq.html</a><br /><o></o></span></b><span style="color: rgb(51, 0, 51);font-size:100%;" /span><b style=""><span style="font-size:85%;"><a style="color: rgb(51, 0, 51);" href="http://www.educesoft.com/quality/costofquality.htm">http://www.educesoft.com/quality/costofquality.htm</a><br /><a style="color: rgb(51, 0, 51);" href="http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/hqlibrary/ppm/ppm35.htm">http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/hqlibrary/ppm/ppm35.htm</a><br /><br /></span><o></o></b><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/06/cbok-skill-category-1b1-cost-of.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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All you wanted to know about CSQA-Application to Certification to Recertification

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<h1 style="text-align: center;">
<span style="font-size:85%;">
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/qai_cqa.htm">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Certified Software Quality Analyst (CSQA)</span>
</a>
<br />
</span>
</h1> <p>Acquiring the designation of Certified Software Quality Analyst (CSQA) indicates a professional level of competence in the principles and practices of quality assurance in the IT profession. CSQAs become members of a recognized professional group and receive recognition of their competence by business and professional associates, potentially more rapid career advancement, and greater acceptance in the role as advisor to management.</p> To become certified as a Certified Software Quality Analyst, every candidate must: <ol> <li>Satisfy all applicant <a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/qai_cqa.htm#001">Prerequisites</a>. </li>
<li>Subscribe to the <a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/qai_cqa.htm#002">Code of Ethics</a>. </li>
<li>Submit a <a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/qai_cqa.htm#003">Character Reference</a>. </li>
<li>Pass a comprehensive written <a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/qai_cqa.htm#004">Examination</a>. </li> </ol> If you're ready to begin the certification process, see <a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/qai_apply.htm">Applying for Candidacy</a>.<br />
<p>
<i>
<span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 204);">
<b>According to the announcement by QAI, starting from March, 2006, candidates will be tested on the new version of CBOK and current candidates will need to start obtaining CPE credits based on this version and the levels of certification will use this version. </b>
</span>
</i> </p> <p> <a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/csqabok/CSQACBOK2006.pdf">CSQA 2006 Common Body of Knowledge</a>
</p> <p style="font-style: italic;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">
<b>
<span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 204);">QAI made it clear that the CBOK below is for anyone sitting for the exam prior to March, 2006 only.<br />
</span>
</b>
</span>
</p> <p> Skill Categories/Knowledge Domains:</p> <ol> <li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/csqabok/csqabok1.htm">Quality Principles</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/csqabok/csqabok2.htm">Software Development, Acquisition, and Operation Processes</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/csqabok/csqabok3.htm">Quality Models and Quality Assessment</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/csqabok/csqabok4.htm">Quality Management/Leadership</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/csqabok/csqabok5.htm">Quality Assurance</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/csqabok/csqabok6.htm">Quality Control Practices</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/csqabok/csqabok7.htm">Define, Build, Implement, and Improve Work Processes</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/csqabok/csqabok8.htm">Quantitative Methods</a> </li> </ol>CSQA certified candidates must be recertified 3 years after passing CSQA to stay current in the field. This can be demonstrated by 1) submitting a Recertification Journal of qualified Continuing Professional Education activities, or 2) by taking an Examination for Recertification to demonstrate the maintenance of the certification.<br />
<br />The individual seven categories eligible for CPE reporting include: <ul> <li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/recert/recertification_a.htm">Category A - Education</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/recert/recertification_b.htm">Category B - Publishing</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/recert/recertification_c.htm">Category C - Teaching</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/recert/recertification_d.htm">Category D - Participation in Profession</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/recert/recertification_e.htm">Category E - Self-Study</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/recert/recertification_f.htm">Category F - Unique and Innovative Activities</a> </li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/recert/recertification_g.htm">Category G - On The Job Activities</a>
</li> </ul> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 1.5in; text-indent: -1.5in;">
<u>There are Advanced Levels of Certifications too - Do check them out @ <a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/qai_levels.htm">SoftwareCertifications</a>
</u>
</p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 1.5in; text-indent: -1.5in;">CSTE/CSQA Study for and pass a four part examination developed by peers to evaluate the candidates knowledge of the principles and concepts incorporated into the common body of knowledge plus the ability to relate those principles and concepts to the challenges faced by IT organizations. </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 1.5in; text-indent: -1.5in;">ASTP/ASQP Candidates must demonstrate their ability to develop real solutions to challenges in their IT organizations, by proposing a solution to a real world problem. If accepted by the Certification Board, to develop and submit for evaluation the step-by-step solution the candidate developed for that IT challenge. This must be done for five (5) common body of knowledge categories. Each accepted solution will be awarded a certificate of competency for that CBOK category. </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 1.5in; text-indent: -1.5in;">MSQA/MSTE Candidate must demonstrate the ability to innovate beyond current practice in solving IT challenges, as well as, demonstrate public service in the IT Quality profession. (available starting in 2006)<br />
</p>For further details on the Schedule of the exam, Application procedures, Recertification, Obtaining & Using Credentials etc can go to <a href="http://www.softwarecertifications.org/qai_cqa.htm">www.softwarecertifications.org/qai_cqa.htm</a>
<br />
<br />Source: <a href="http://the%20individual%20seven%20categories%20eligible%20for%20cpe%20reporting%20include/">www.softwarecertifications.org<br />
</a>
</div><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/all-you-wanted-to-know-about-csqa.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1 - Quality Principles - Study Notes

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<div style="text-align: center;"> <div style="text-align: left;">I would like to start with the notes that I have made & other sources for the sections of the CBOK. Starting from the 1st Knowledge Domain i.e., <span style="font-weight: bold;">Quality Principles</span>, I would like to take each sub domain of it from my next post. Keep checking for the new updated notes. Please note that I have already posted the notes on "Cost of Quality(COQ)". Please check my previous posts for COQ.<br /></div> <b><br />CSQA CBOK - </b><em>Skill Category 1</em><br /></div> <span style="font-weight: bold;"></span> <div style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 0, 153);"><span style="font-size:130%;">Quality Principles</span></div> <ol type="A"> <li><b>Definitions of Quality</b>: Producer?s view of quality & Customer?s view of quality</li> <p> </p><li><b>Quality Concepts</b>: Cost of quality;Plan-Do-Check-Act;Six Sigma;Benchmarking; Continuous improvement; Best Practices</li> <p> </p><li><b>Quality Objectives</b>: Improve customer satisfaction;Reduce development costs/improve time-to-market capability;Improve processes</li> <p> </p><p> </p><li><b>Quality Attributes</b> - Examples like: Reliability;Maintainability;Usability;Portability</li> <li><b>Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control</b><br /></li><p> </p><li><b>Quality Pioneers</b>: Deming;Juran;Crosby & their contributions<br /></li> <p> </p><li><b>Quality Vocabulary</b></li> </ol><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1-quality.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.A - Definitions of Quality: Producer?s view of quality & Customer?s view of quality

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

The definitions in summary are given below. For those who love to read more, further info is given.<br /><br />From the <span style="font-weight: bold;">customer's perspective</span>, satisfaction after the delivering of the product is the ultimate validation of the product quality. It is clear that the concept of quality must involve customers or, simply put, quallity is conformance to customers' expectations and requirements. Crosby's "conformance to requirements" and Juran's "fitness for use" both implied the customers' perspective.<br /><br />From the<span style="font-weight: bold;"> producer's perspective</span>, developing and producing the product in accordance with the specifications is the path to achieving quality.<br /><br />Therefore the three ideal metrics any organization should have are product quality, process quality, and customer satisfaction (referred to as the big capital ?Q?).<br /><br />From a high-level definition of a concept, to a product being operationally defined, many steps are involved, each of which may be exposed to possible shortcomings. For example, to achieve the state of conformance to requirements, customers' requirements must first be gathered and analyzed, then specifications from those requirements must be developed, and the product must be developed and manufactured appropriately. In each phase of the process, errors may have occurred that will negatively affect the quality of the finished product. The requirements may be erroneous (especially in the case of software development), the development and manufacturing process may be subject to variable that induce defects, and so forth. Form the customer's perspective, satisfaction after the purchase of the product is the ultimate validation that the product conforms to requirements and is fit to use. From the producer's perspective, once requirements are specified, developing and producing the product in accordance with the specifications is the basic step to achieving quality. Usually, for product quality, lack of functional defeats and good reliability are the most basic measures. In order to be "fit for use," the product first has to be reliably functional.<br /><br />Because of the two perspectives on quality (i.e., customer satisfaction as the ultimate validation of quality, alnd the producer's adherence to requirements to achieve quality), the de facto definition of quality consists of two levels. The first is the intrinsic product quality, often operationally limited to product quality,often operationally limited to product defect rate and reliability; this narrow definition is referred to as the "small" q (q for quality). The broader level of the definition of quality includes both product quality and customer satisfaction; it is referred to as the "big" Q.<br /><br />In software, the norrowest sense of product quality is comonly recongnized as lack of "bugs" in the product. This definition is usually expressed in two ways: defect rate (e.g., number of defects per million lines of source code, or per function point), and reliability (e.g., number of failure per n hours of operation, mean time to failure, or the probability of failure-free operation in a specified time). Customer satisfaction is usually measured by the percentage of those satisfied or nonsatisfied (neutral and dissatisfied) on customer satisfaction surveys. To reduce bias, usually techniques such as double-blind surveys (the interviewer not knowing who the customer is, and the customer not knowing what company the interviewer represents) are used. In addition to overall customer satisfaction with the software product, satisfaction toward specific attributes is CUPRIMDSO satisfaction levels of its software products (i.e., capability [functionality], usability, performance, reliability, instalability, maintainability, documentation/information, service, and overall satisfaction). The Hewlett-Packard Co. focuses on FURPS (functionalilty, usability, relability, performance, and supportability)[1].<br /><br />For people with much more interest, here is the link from HP's Center for Quality Management Journal. I believe the differences between Customer's & Producer's view of qualities cant be better enumerated. The copyrights do not allow to reproduce any part of it. You can go to this link to find this quite a long paper: <a href="http://cqmextra.cqm.org/cqmjournal.nsf/reprints/rp08300">http://cqmextra.cqm.org/cqmjournal.nsf/reprints/rp08300</a><br />The PDF form of this article can be downloaded from this link: <a href="http://cqmextra.cqm.org/cqmjournal.nsf/2fff9754b9deecf5852566340064a8e6/7855628816bce47b85256640004adf58/$FILE/RP08300.pdf">DOWNLOAD Article(PDF)</a><span style="font-weight: bold;"><br /><br />References</span>:<br /><div class="artPubLine"> <ol> <li><span style="font-size:85%;"><strong><a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISJ/is_n1_v33/ai_15103433">Software quality: an overview from the perspective of total quality management - Tutorial</a> - <a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISJ">IBM Systems Journal</a></strong>, <a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISJ/is_n1_v33">March, 1994</a> by <a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Stephen+H.+Kan%22">Stephen H. Kan</a>, <a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Victor+R.+Basili%22">Victor R. Basili</a> , <a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Larry+N.+Shapiro%22">L arry N. Shapiro</a></span></li> </ol> </div><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1a-definitions-of.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.D - Software quality attributes

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<a href="http://www.netnam.vn/unescocourse/se/images/figure11.gif" onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}">
<img alt="" border="0" src="http://www.netnam.vn/unescocourse/se/images/figure11.gif" style="margin: 0pt 10px 10px 0pt; float: left; cursor: pointer; width: 320px;" />
</a>
<br />
<span style="font-family:Arial;" />
<p style="font-family:georgia;"> </p> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Correctness</span>
</b>
</span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">The software system?s fulfillment of the specifications underlying its development. The correctness of a software system refers to:</span>
</p> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Agreement of <i>program code</i> with <i>specifications</i>
</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Independence of the actual application of the software system.</span>
</li> </ul> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">The correctness of a program becomes especially critical when it is embedded in a complex software system.</span>
</p> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> </b>
</span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<b>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Example 1.1</span>
</b>
<span style="font-size:100%;"> Let <i>p</i> be the probability that an individual program is correct; then the probability <i>P</i> of correctness of the software system consisting of <i>n</i> programs is computed as <i>P = p<sup>n</sup>
</i>
<sup> </sup>.</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">If <i>n</i> is very large, then <i>p</i> must be nearly 1 in order to allow <i>P</i> to deviate significantly from 0 [Dijkstra 1972b].</span>
</p> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> </b>
</span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<b>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Reliability</span>
</b>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Reliability of a software system derives from</span>
</p> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Correctness, and</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Availability.</span>
</li> </ul> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">The behavior over time for the fulfillment of a given specification depends on the reliability of the software system.</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Reliability of a software system is defined as the probability that this system fulfills a function (determined by the specifications) for a specified number of input trials under specified input conditions in a specified time interval (assuming that hardware and input are free of errors).</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">A software system can be seen as reliable if this test produces a low <i>error rate </i>(i.e., the probability that an error will occur in a specified time interval.)</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">The error rate depends on the frequency of inputs and on the probability that an individual input will lead to an error.</span>
</p> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> </b>
</span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<b>
<span style="font-size:100%;">User friendliness:</span>
</b>
</p> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Adequacy</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Learnability</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Robustness</span>
</li> </ul> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> </b>
</span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<b>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Adequacy</span>
</b>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Factors for the requirement of <b>Adequacy</b>:</span>
</p> <ol style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">The input required of the user should be limited to only what is necessary. The software system should expect information only if it is necessary for the functions that the user wishes to carry out. The software system should enable flexible data input on the part of the user and should carry out plausibility checks on the input. In dialog-driven software systems, we vest particular importance in the uniformity, clarity and simplicity of the dialogs.</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">The performance offered by the software system should be adapted to the wishes of the user with the consideration given to extensibility; i.e., the functions should be limited to these in the specification.</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">The results produced by the software system:<br />The results that a software system delivers should be output in a clear and well-structured form and be easy to interpret. The software system should afford the user flexibility with respect to the scope, the degree of detail, and the form of presentation of the results.Error messages must be provided in a form that is comprehensible for the user.</span>
</li> </ol> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> <p>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Learnability</span>
</p> </b> </span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Learnability of a software system depends on:</span>
</p> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">The design of user interfaces</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">The clarity and the simplicity of the user instructions (tutorial or user manual).</span>
</li> </ul> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">The user interface should present information as close to reality as possible and permit efficient utilization of the software?s failures.</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">The user manual should be structured clearly and simply and be free of all dead weight. It should explain to the user what the software system should do, how the individual functions are activated, what relationships exist between functions, and which exceptions might arise and how they can be corrected. In addition, the user manual should serve as a reference that supports the user in quickly and comfortably finding the correct answers to questions.</span>
</p> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> </b>
</span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<b>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Robustness</span>
</b>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Robustness reduces the impact of operational mistakes, erroneous input data, and hardware errors.</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">A software system is robust if the consequences of an error in its operation, in the input, or in the hardware, in relation to a given application, are inversely proportional to the probability of the occurrence of this error in the given application.</span>
</p> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Frequent errors (e.g. erroneous commands, typing errors) must be handled with particular care</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Less frequent errors (e.g. power failure) can be handled more laxly, but still must not lead to irreversible consequences.</span>
</li> </ul> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> <p>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Maintainability</span>
</p> </b> </span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Maintainability<b> = </b>suitability for debugging (localization and correction of errors) and for modification and extension of functionality.</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">The maintainability of a software system depends on its:</span>
</p> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Readability</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Extensibility</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Testability</span>
</li> </ul> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> <p>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Readability</span>
</p> </b> </span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Readability of a software system depends on its:</span>
</p> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Form of representation</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Programming style</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Consistency</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Readability of the implementation programming languages</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Structuredness of the system</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Quality of the documentation</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Tools available for inspection</span>
</li> </ul> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> <p>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Extensibility</span>
</p> </b> </span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Extensibility allows required modifications at the appropriate locations to be made without undesirable side effects.</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Extensibility of a software system depends on its:</span>
</p> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Structuredness (modularity) of the software system</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Possibilities that the implementation language provides for this purpose</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Readability (to find the appropriate location) of the code</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Availability of comprehensible program documentation</span>
</li> </ul> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> <p>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Testability</span>
</p> </b> </span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Testability: suitability for allowing the programmer to follow program execution (run-time behavior under given conditions) and for debugging.</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">The testability of a software system depends on its:</span>
</p> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Modularity</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Structuredness</span>
</li> </ul> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Modular, well-structured programs prove more suitable for systematic, stepwise testing than monolithic, unstructured programs.</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Testing tools and the possibility of formulating consistency conditions (assertions) in the source code reduce the testing effort and provide important prerequisites for the extensive, systematic testing of all system components.</span>
</p> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> <p>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Efficiency</span>
</p> </b> </span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Efficiency: ability of a software system to fulfill its purpose with the best possible utilization of all necessary resources (time, storage, transmission channels, and peripherals).</span>
</p> <span style="font-family:Arial;">
<b> <p>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Portability</span>
</p> </b> </span> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">Portability: the ease with which a software system can be adapted to run on computers other than the one for which it was designed.</span>
</p> <p style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">The portability of a software system depends on:</span>
</p> <ul style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Degree of hardware independence</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Implementation language</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Extent of exploitation of specialized system functions</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Hardware properties</span>
</li> <li>
<span style="font-size:100%;">Structuredness: System-dependent elements are collected in easily interchangeable program components.</span>
</li> </ul> <p face="georgia">
<span style="font-size:100%;">A software system can be said to be portable if the effort required for porting it proves significantly less than the effort necessary for a new implementation.<br />
</span>
</p> <p style="font-family: georgia;">
<span style="font-size:100%;">
<span style="font-style: italic;">Find out more info on Quality Attributes in the Technical Report of Carnegie Mellon University on </span>
<a href="http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf/tr021.95.pdf" style="font-style: italic;">QUALITY ATTRIBUTES.</a>
<span style="font-style: italic;"> You can also download this paper from: </span>
<a href="http://www.sei.cmu.edu/publications/documents/95.reports/95.tr.021.html" style="font-style: italic;">THIS LINK of SEI</a>
<span style="font-style: italic;">.</span>
<br />
</span>
</p> <p style="text-align: left;font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-size:130%;">
<span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:78%;">Reference: </span>
<span style="font-size:78%;">SOFTWARE ENGINEERING </span>
</span>
<span style="font-size:78%;">By Nguyen Xuan Huy</span>
</p> <i style="font-family: georgia;" /> <p style="font-family: georgia;">
<br />
</p>
</div><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1d-software.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.F.1 - Deming's 14 Principles

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<h2>Deming's 14 Points</h2> <ol> <li> Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service. Dr. Deming suggests a radical new definition of a company's role: A better way to make money is to stay in business and provide jobs through innovation, research, constant improvement and maintenance. </li>
<li> Adopt the new philosophy. For the new economic age, management need to take leadership for change into a 'learning organisation'. Furthermore, we need a new belief in which mistakes and negativism are unacceptable. </li>
<li> Cease dependence on mass inspection. Eliminate the need for mass inspection by building quality into the product. </li>
<li> End awarding business on price. Instead, aim at minimum total cost and move towards single suppliers. </li>
<li> Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service. Improvement is not a one-time effort. Management is obligated to continually look for ways to reduce waste and improve quality. </li>
<li> Institute training. Too often, workers have learned their job from other workers who have never been trained properly. They are forced to follow unintelligible instructions. They can't do their jobs well because no one tells them how to do so. </li>
<li> Institute leadership. The job of a supervisor is not to tell people what to do nor to punish them, but to lead. Leading consists of helping people to do a better job and to learn by objective methods. </li>
<li> Drive out fear. Many employees are afraid to ask questions or to take a position, even when they do not understand what their job is or what is right or wrong. They will continue to do things the wrong way, or not do them at all. The economic losses from fear are appalling. To assure better quality and productivity, it is necessary that people feel secure. "The only stupid question is the one that is not asked." </li>
<li> Break down barriers between departments. Often a company's departments or units are competing with each other or have goals that conflict. They do not work as a team, therefore they cannot solve or foresee problems. Even worse, one department's goal may cause trouble for another. </li>
<li> Eliminate slogans, exhortations and numerical targets for the workforce. These never help anybody do a good job. Let workers formulate their own slogans. Then they will be committed to the contents. </li>
<li> Eliminate numerical quotas or work standards. Quotas take into account only numbers, not quality or methods. They are usually a guarantee of inefficiency and high cost. A person, in order to hold a job, will try to meet a quota at any cost, including doing damage to his company. </li>
<li> Remove barriers to taking pride in workmanship. People are eager to do a good job and distressed when they cannot. Too often, misguided supervisors, faulty equipment and defective materials stand in the way of good performance. These barriers must be removed. </li>
<li> Institute a vigorous programme of education. Both management and the work force will have to be educated in the new knowledge and understanding, including teamwork and statistical techniques. </li>
<li> Take action to accomplish the transformation. It will require a special top management team with a plan of action to carry out the quality mission. Workers cannot do it on their own, nor can managers. A critical mass of people in the company must understand the 14 points. </li> </ol>
</div><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1f1-demings-14.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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