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Help understandin IP Adressing, Network Masking,Subnet Masking

By cul8rm8e ·
I am 18 and currently working towards taking my MCP, i know for this exam i do not need to know too much in depth information about it however i am very curious to how it works....

What i was wanting to ask is if anyone could please take out a little time to explain IP adressin,Network Masking and Subnet Masking in the most simplest of terms as possible?

This help would be very much appreciated and Thankyou in advance!

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Its Easy

by jhansen In reply to Help understandin IP Adre ...

Networks with less then 100 computers should use the following settings (almost all the time)
IP address -
Noticed how i left a litte extra on both ends of the range to allow for servers / network printers.

The subnet mask will be The '0' indicates that 255 address's are available if you used the subnetmask then 255 * 2 address's would be available. if you used as your subnet mask then 255*255 address's would be available. Before you can know any more, you must understand the 7 layer OSI networking Model. It will expalin it all.

If you need an easy way to backup your computer visit Resellers Needed!

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MCP advice

by house In reply to Help understandin IP Adre ...

I could write a 10,000 page book on network mathematics and theory.

For the MCP, I don't think you need to know much besides...

169.x.x.x - assigned by windows when dhcp server cannot be found
127.x.x.x - loopback address

When they ask you simple questions like why the computer can't interact with another on another network; make sure your gateway is in the same network as your ip.

In a range, the first ip is reserved for the network and the last ip is reserved for broadcasting. These 2 can never be used for a host address.

Use your common sense to cancel out the other options.

ex: ip

* the ip is in the network; by the SM and class, you know the range is>254; the gateway is in the>254 range of valid host id's; they are in two seperate networks.

Remember that network installs require a dhcp and a dns or wins server. There are quite a few questions about this on both the 2k and XP cert exams. Learn unattended installation inside and out.

* If you are interested in learning the ins and outs of networking, train yourself and write the Network+ and CCNA exams. Although in the real world, the Network+ is never really worth much, I love the stuff, and I think it is a key introduction to networking.

PS - the Network+ and the A+ comptia certs combined, actually count as one elective towards your MCSA...not for the MCSE though.

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A lot to it

by jdmercha In reply to Help understandin IP Adre ...

Yes, there is a lot to the IP addressing scheme. But basically the first to numbers in an IP address is the network number. The next number is the subnet number and the last nuber is the machine number. Thus,; the network number is 169.234. The subnet is 56 and the machine number is 3.

The subnet mask helps to define the local network. The 255 indicates that that part of the adress is on the same network. Very large networks might use a subnet mask of, meaning that all computers on the 169.234 network are all part of the local network. Most often is used which limits the local network to 256 devices.

There is really a lot more to it than that. For example you might even see a subnet mask of But then it would take a lot more space to explainm all the different options. (Such as class A, B and C networks.)

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I wouldn't explain it like that you might add more confusion

by TomSal In reply to A lot to it

To say the first two numbers in an ip address is the network, the next is the subnet, and the last is the machine is for one technically inaccurate (if you want to be **** about it I mean) and two is just far to confusing to tell someone just trying to grasp the concepts.

There are only two divisions network and host.

The first two numbers ( I think you meant to say octets) are not always the network.

It depends on your subnetting, which in turn dictates the class.

In a class A address ( for example the first octet is your network.

Class B ( the first two octets are the network.

Class C ( the first three octets are the network.

Of course all bets are off once you subnet to not standard addresses (like using VLSM).

The zero's "0" indicate the host addresses, or as you said "machine" address.

The last network octet does determine which network you are on though, as you stated.

I just think for learning the foundation of subnetting its easier when someone takes in the concepts of network/host addressing and how the default classes determine each first, then they can get "fancier" in their head with further IP addressing knowledge.

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To really learn it try this

by TomSal In reply to Help understandin IP Adre ...

The folks here are trying to help, but unfortunately I think they are just giving an idea on how IP addressing is used instead of teaching how to LEARN how ip addressing works.

In that regard I suggest checking out this excellent

(if the addressed change, google it).

Its not that bad but I do suggest a basic understand of binary math first and you need to do some pratice by repeatedly subnetting addresses (just make some up , write them down and subnet -- to check your a subnet calculator -- again just google for a subnet calculater, has an excellent one for free).

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by Gryfon In reply to To really learn it try th ...

TomSal. Lost that address.

We did binary math in Networking class, it was the best way to learn it. Don't go learning shortcuts, get the basics now and you won't have to worry about it at all in the future.

Have fun!

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A place to start

by BFilmFan In reply to Help understandin IP Adre ...

A good place to learn the basics of subnetting is

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Check TechBooks

by Doobiedoobs In reply to Help understandin IP Adre ...


Check the O'Reilly series on networking. They
are in I think in layman's term but full of
detailed technical information.


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If you need help

by jkaras In reply to Help understandin IP Adre ...

I have a great power point slide show to understand ip addressing that I got from school that has indepth 93 slides. if you want it just drop me a hello email at and I will send it to you. Good luck in your studies.

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Thanks very much!

by cul8rm8e In reply to If you need help

I have posted within Tech Republic and have not as yet had this much feedback...i can relate to some of the things getting said and therefore will follow up on some of the great learning resources offered to me...

Thanks very much to all who have replied..

Kind Regards
John Varney jnr

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