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Your public address, such as a web server, has a valid, routable IP address. Your internal addresses are probably behind a NAT provider, and are probably 10.x.x.x or 192.168.x.x.
The key is routing. Your machine, with an internal address, should point to the NAT router as its default gateway. It is the job of that router to find outside addresses.
There are three areas where things can go wrong. If your box also has its own outside address, in the form of a secondary address on a NIC, orthe address on a second NIC, and that address is on the same network as the address you are trying to reach, the “local” NIC will be used, and, since it is not connected, the attempt will fail.
The second possible problem area is the router. It should probably have a static route to each of your servers.
In the third case, if your server is also behind the NAT, and you are using port addressing to get to the box from the outside, the router could be getting confused. Can you access the same box using its internal address? (It has one in this scenario.) If so, you may be seeing a limitation in the router. Check the router manufacturer’s web site, and send an email to their help desk and ask.
I am supporting a customer who insists this is possible. I realize that you can use your internal address to reach the public address and vice versa, but he says he has a server with a public address and people need to use it both internally and externally. There is a button you click on that creates a 3-point connection,not sure what this is, but this is his problem. I here from my engineers that it is a cisco limitation. I was checking to see if so.