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TCP/IP QUIZ

by SENJINinternet In reply to SENJINspace

<div class="Section1">

<p class="MsoNormal"><b>CSCi16 LAB EXAM SUPPLEMENT </b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><o> </o></b></p>

<h1>How to Use the Ping Command</h1>

<p><b><i>Pinging</i></b><b> is a command
which tells you if the connection between your computer and a particular domain
is working correctly.In Windows, select <i>Start > Programs > Accessories
> Command Prompt</i>. This will give you a window like the one below.Enter
the word <i>ping</i>, followed by a space, then the domain name.If the results
show a series of replies, the connection is working. The time shows you how
fast the connection is. If you see a "timed out" error instead of a
reply, there is a breakdown somewhere between your computer and the domain. In
this case the next step is to perform a <a href="http://www.mediacollege.com/internet/troubleshooter/traceroute.html">traceroute</a>.</b></p>

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<v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/>
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<v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/>
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<v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\WORKST~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image001.gif"
o:href="http://www.mediacollege.com/internet/images/ping.gif"/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/WORKST%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.gif" alt="Ping" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025" border="0" height="194" width="423" /><!--[endif]--></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75"
alt="">
<v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\WORKST~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image003.gif"
o:href="http://www.xtra.co.nz/t.gif"/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/WORKST%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1026" border="0" height="5" width="1" /><!--[endif]--><br clear="all">
</b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><a name="1"><b>How
to use </b></a><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b>. <br />
<br />
The </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command is a tool built into Windows that can give you useful
information on the nature of your Internet connection. </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> allows you to see if
a particular IP address or a particular Domain name exists on the Internet and
is actively returning </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> requests. <br />
<br />
To run </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> you'll need to <a href="http://xtra.co.nz/help/0,,4155-1903990,00.html">open a Command line</a>. <br />
<br />
Once you have your command line open type in </b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b>, followed by a space
and then the IP address or domain name that you want to test. e.g. <br />
<br />
ping pop3.xtra.co.nz <br />
ping 203.96.92.132 <br />
<br />
A normal reply will give you four lines of responses, plus four lines of
summary like this:<i></i></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><i>Reply from
203.96.92.132: bytes=32 time=100ms TTL=252 <br />
Reply from 203.96.92.132: bytes=32 time=100ms TTL=252 <br />
Reply from 203.96.92.132: bytes=32 time=100ms TTL=252 <br />
Reply from 203.96.92.132: bytes=32 time=100ms TTL=252 <br />
<br />
Ping statistics for 203.96.92.132: <br />
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), <br />
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: <br />
Minimum = 100ms, Maximum = 100ms, Average = 100ms</i></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b>These results tell you that four
test packets were sent out of 32 bytes each in size and came back from
203.96.92.132 in a time of 100ms. The TTL figure stands for time to live and
defines how long your </b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> requests bounce around before expiring. <br />
<br />
</b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> Options</b><b>. <br />
<br />
The </b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> command can be used with the following switches. To add a switch to
the command just add it after a space. e,g, <br />
<br />
</b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> -t <br />
</b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> -t -a</b><b> <br />
<br />
Options:</b><b></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b>-t</b><b> Ping the specified host until
stopped. Stop with CTRL and C. <br />
-a Resolve addresses to
hostnames. <br />
-n count Number of echo requests
to send. <br />
-l size Send buffer size. <br />
-f Set Don't Fragment flag in
packet. <br />
-i TTL Time To Live. <br />
-v TOS Type Of Service. <br />
-r count Record route for count
hops. <br />
-s count Timestamp for count
hops. <br />
-j host-list Loose source route
along host-list. <br />
-k host-list Strict source route
along host-list. <br />
-w timeout Timeout in
milliseconds to wait for each reply.</b><b></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b>For more help with </b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> type in ping /? and press Enter
from your command line. <br />
<br />
<a name="3">Ping Errors</a> <br />
<br />
You might receive one or more of these errors when using the </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command:</b><b></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b>Bad IP Address <br />
Ping transmit failed, error code 65 <br />
Ping transmit failed, error code 10091 <br />
Ping transmit failed, error code 10043 <br />
No Route to Host <br />
Destination Host Unreachable <br />
Unable to initialize Windows Socket Interface, Error Code 6</b><b></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><o> </o></b></p>

<p><b>How </b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> was invented</b><b>. The original </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command stood for "Packet Internet Groper", and was a
package of diagnostic utilities used by <a href="http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii_darpa.htm"><i>DARPA</i></a> personnel
to test the performance of the <a href="http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii_arpanet.htm"><i>ARPANET</i></a>.
However, the modern Internet </b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> command refers to a program was written by <a href="http://ftp.arl.mil/%7Emike/">Mike Muuss</a> in December, 1983, which has
since become one of the most versatile and widely used diagnostic tools on the
Internet. Muuss named his program after the sonar sounds used for echo-location
by submarines and bats; just like in old movies about submarines, sonar probes
do sound something like a metallic "ping". </b><b></b></p>

<p><b>How </b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> works</b><b>. The Internet </b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> program works much like a sonar echo-location, sending a small packet
of information containing an <a href="http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ia_rfc_net.htm"><i>ICMP</i></a>
ECHO_REQUEST to a specified computer, which then sends an ECHO_REPLY packet in
return. The IP address 127.0.0.1 is set by convention to always indicate your
own computer. Therefore, a ping to that address will always ping yourself and
the delay should be very short. This provides the most basic test of your local
communications.</b><b></b></p>

<h2>Using the ping command>>> If you are
having connectivity problems, you can use the ping command to check the
destination IP address you want to reach and record the results. The ping
command displays whether the destination responded and how long it took to
receive a reply. If there is an error in the delivery to the destination, the
ping command displays an error message.</h2>

<p><b>You can
use the ping command to:</b></p>

<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
<tbody><tr>
<td valign="top">
<p class="MsoNormal"><b>?</b></p>
</td>
<td>
<p><b>Ping
your computer (by address, not host name) to determine that TCP/IP is
functioning. (Pinging your computer does not verify that your network adapter
is functioning.)</b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p class="MsoNormal"><b>?</b></p>
</td>
<td>
<p><b>Ping
the local router to determine whether the router is running.</b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p class="MsoNormal"><b>?</b></p>
</td>
<td>
<p><b>Ping
beyond your local router.</b></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><o> </o></b></p>

<div align="center">

<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%">
<tbody><tr>
<td width="100%">
<p class="MsoNormal" align="center"><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>

</div>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><o> </o></b></p>

<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%">
<tbody><tr>
<td width="100%">
<p class="MsoNormal"><b>Using the </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command allows you to check
latency and connectivity to a known website or IP address, provided the
destination allows ICMP requests.<br />
<br />
Using </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> requires you to be at the Windows COMMAND Prompt:<br />
Windows 98: Start - Run - command<br />
Windows 2000: Start - Run - cmd<br />
<br />
Our firewall does not allow pings and tracert directly to any domain or
server.<br />
<br />
<br />
Advanced Users <br />
<br />
The ping command helps to verify IP-level connectivity. When troubleshooting,
you can use ping to send an ICMP echo request to a target host name or IP
address. Use ping whenever you need to verify that a host computer can
connect to the TCP/IP network and network resources. You can also use ping to
isolate network hardware problems and incompatible configurations.<br />
<br />
It is usually best to verify that a route exists between the local computer
and a network host by first using the ping command and the IP address of the
network host to which you want to connect. Try pinging the IP address of the
target host to see if it responds, as follows:<br />
<br />
ping 216.115.108.245<br />
<br />
You should perform the following steps when using ping:<br />
<br />
</b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> the loopback address to verify that TCP/IP is installed and
configured correctly on the local computer. <br />
<br />
ping 127.0.0.1<br />
<br />
Ping the IP address of the local computer to verify that it was added to the
network correctly. <br />
<br />
ping IP_address_of_local_host<br />
<br />
</b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> the IP address of the default gateway to verify that the default
gateway is functioning and that you can communicate with a local host on the
local network. <br />
<br />
ping IP_address_of_default_gateway<br />
<br />
</b><st1:place><b>Ping</b></st1:place><b> the IP address of a remote host to verify that you can communicate
through a router. <br />
<br />
ping IP_address_of_remote_host<br />
<br />
The ping command uses Windows Sockets?style name resolution to resolve a
computer name to an IP address, so if pinging by address succeeds, but
pinging by name fails, then the problem lies in address or name resolution,
not network connectivity. <br />
<br />
If you cannot use ping successfully at any point, confirm that:<br />
<br />
The computer was restarted after TCP/IP was installed and configured. <br />
<br />
The IP address of the local computer is valid and appears correctly on the
General tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box. <br />
<br />
IP routing is enabled and the link between routers is operational.<br />
<br />
<br />
You can use different options with the ping command to specify the size of
packets to use, how many packets to send, whether to record the route used,
what Time-to-Live (TTL) value to use, and whether to set the "don't
fragment" flag. You can type ping ?? to see these options.<br />
<br />
The following example illustrates how to send two pings, each 1,450 bytes in
size, to IP address 172.16.48.10:<br />
<br />
C>ping -n 2 -l 1450 172.16.48.10<br />
Pinging 172.16.48.10 with 1450 bytes of data:<br />
<br />
Reply from 172.16.48.10: bytes=1450 time<10ms TTL=32<br />
Reply from 172.16.48.10: bytes=1450 time<10ms TTL=32<br />
<br />
Ping statistics for 157.59.8.1:<br />
Packets: Sent = 2, Received = 2, Lost = 0 (0% loss),<br />
Approximate roundtrip times in milli-seconds:<br />
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 10ms, Average = 2ms<br />
By default, ping waits 1,000 ms (1 second) for each response to be returned
before displaying the "Request Timed Out" message. If the remote
system being pinged is across a high-delay link, such as a satellite link,
responses may take longer to be returned. You can use the ?w (wait) option to
specify a longer time-out.</b><b></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><o> </o></b></p>

<h1>To test a TCP/IP configuration by using the
ping command</h1>

<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
<tbody><tr>
<td nowrap="nowrap" valign="top">
<p align="right"><b>1.</b></p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p><b>To
quickly obtain the TCP/IP configuration of a computer, open Command Prompt,
and then type ipconfig. From
the display of the ipconfig
command, ensure that the network adapter for the TCP/IP configuration you are
testing is not in a Media disconnected
state. </b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td nowrap="nowrap" valign="top">
<p align="right"><b>2.</b></p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p><b>At
the command prompt, ping the loopback address by typing ping 127.0.0.1. </b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td nowrap="nowrap" valign="top">
<p align="right"><b>3.</b></p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p><b>Ping
the IP address of the computer. </b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td nowrap="nowrap" valign="top">
<p align="right"><b>4.</b></p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p><b>Ping
the IP address of the default gateway. </b></p>
<p><b>If
the ping command fails, verify
that the default gateway IP address is correct and that the gateway (router)
is operational.</b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td nowrap="nowrap" valign="top">
<p align="right"><b>5.</b></p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p><b>Ping
the IP address of a remote host (a host that is on a different subnet). </b></p>
<p><b>If
the ping command fails, verify
that the remote host IP address is correct, that the remote host is
operational, and that all of the gateways (routers) between this computer and
the remote host are operational.</b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td nowrap="nowrap" valign="top">
<p align="right"><b>6.</b></p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p><b>Ping
the IP address of the DNS server </b></p>
<p><b>If
the ping command fails, verify
that the DNS server IP address is correct, that the DNS server is
operational, and that all of the gateways (routers) between this computer and
the DNS server are operational.</b></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>

<p><b>Note</b><b></b></p>

<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
<tbody><tr>
<td valign="top">
<p class="MsoNormal"><b>?</b></p>
</td>
<td>
<p><b>To
open command prompt, click Start,
point to All Programs, point
to Accessories, and then click
Command Prompt. </b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p class="MsoNormal"><b>?</b></p>
</td>
<td>
<p><b>If
the ping command is not found
or the command fails, you can use Event Viewer to check the System Log and
look for problems reported by Setup or the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
service. </b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p class="MsoNormal"><b>?</b></p>
</td>
<td>
<p><b>The
ping command uses Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request and
Echo Reply messages. Packet filtering policies on routers, firewalls, or
other types of security gateways might prevent the forwarding of this
traffic. </b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p class="MsoNormal"><b>?</b></p>
</td>
<td>
<p><b>The
ipconfig command is the command-line equivalent to the winipcfg command,
which is available in Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 98,
and Windows 95. Windows XP does not include a graphical equivalent
to the winipcfg command; however, you can get the equivalent functionality
for viewing and renewing an IP address by opening Network Connections,
right-clicking a network connection, clicking Status, and then clicking the Support tab. </b></p>
<p><b>Used
without parameters, ipconfig displays the IP address, subnet mask, and
default gateway for all adapters.</b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p class="MsoNormal"><b>?</b></p>
</td>
<td>
<p><b>To
run ipconfig, open the command prompt, and then type ipconfig. </b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p class="MsoNormal"><b>?</b></p>
</td>
<td>
<p><b>To
open Network Connections, click Start,
click Control Panel, click Network and Internet Connections,
and then click Network Connections. </b></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><o> </o></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><o> </o></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b>*** NOTE: Windows 2000, Windows XP and above users do
not have winipcfg. Instead, use <a href="http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000444.htm#11">ipconfig</a>.</b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><o> </o></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b>A response of "Request timed out" means there
was no response to the ping attempt in the default time period of one second.
If the latency of the response is more than one second. Use the -w option on
the ping command to increase the time-out. For example, to allow responses
within five seconds, use ping -w 5000.</b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal"><b><o> </o></b></p>

<p class="MsoNormal">TCP/IP Basics, the PING command   >>> </p>

<p><b>PING Introduction<br />
</b><b>Once you have allocated an IP address to your network card,
it is possible to test that there is some rudimentary communication between it
and you. To do this we can use the </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command.</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>The </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command sends some simple TCP/IP data to the device that you specify,
if the device is configured correctly, it will answer back. If you get an
answer back, then there is a good chance that you have configured your card
correctly. If there isn't a response, then you can assume that there will be a
problem.</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>To use the </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command do the following:</b><b></b></p>

<p><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> ip_address</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>Where <i>IP address</i> is the IP address of the device you
wish to test.</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>For example:</b><b></b></p>

<p><b><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1027" type="#_x0000_t75"
alt="ping">
<v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\WORKST~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image005.gif"
o:href="http://www.brother.com/european/networking/chapter13/Image7.gif"/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/WORKST%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image005.gif" alt="ping" naturalsizeflag="3" v:shapes="_x0000_i1027" align="bottom" border="0" height="18" width="103" /><b></b></p>

<p><b>If the IP address you specify is correct, you will see
something like this:</b><b></b></p>

<p><b><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1028" type="#_x0000_t75"
alt="ping with reply">
<v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\WORKST~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image006.gif"
o:href="http://www.brother.com/european/networking/chapter13/Image5.gif"/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/WORKST%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image006.gif" alt="ping with reply" naturalsizeflag="3" v:shapes="_x0000_i1028" align="bottom" border="0" height="102" width="318" /><b></b></p>

<p><b>From this we can see that we have had a reply from the
device (220.0.0.180). Which means that we can conclude that there isn't a
problem.</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>There are many </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> parameters, and some implementations of </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> perform differently to others. For
example, on some systems if you use the </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command, it will constantly send
packets of data to the specified device until you break out of the process.
With Windows 95 and NT, the </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command tries to communicate with the device four times, after which it
gives up.</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>To see how your PING command works, use the PING command on
its own, if you're on a Unix system enter man ping. Assuming that you're using
Windows 95 you will see the following:</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>From this information, we can see that if we use </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command with a -t switch, the </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> process will continue until the
process is interrupted. For example, the command: </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> 220.0.0.180 -t, will force Windows
95 to repeatedly attempt to communicate with the device 220.0.0.180.</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>Troubleshooting<br />
</b><b>If there are problems with devices that your attempting to
communicate, you will get error messages.</b><b></b></p>

<p><b><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1029" type="#_x0000_t75"
alt="ping timeout">
<v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\WORKST~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image007.gif"
o:href="http://www.brother.com/european/networking/chapter13/Image6.gif"/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/WORKST%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image007.gif" alt="ping timeout" naturalsizeflag="3" v:shapes="_x0000_i1029" align="bottom" border="0" height="102" width="271" /><b></b></p>

<p><b>In the above example, we get four "Request timed
out." error messages. This tells us that there is a problem with the
device we have tried to communicate with. There are four possible reasons for
this:</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>We did not specify the correct IP address:<br />
Check that the IP address that we are specifying is the same as the IP address
of the network card.</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>The IP address we specified is not set in the device we wish
to communicate with:<br />
Check that the device IP address is what it is supposed to be.</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>There is a problem with the cabling.<br />
There is a possibility that there is a problem with the cabling, if there is
another device on the same segment of cabling that uses TCP/IP, see if you can
communicate with that device using the </b><st1:place><b>PING</b></st1:place><b> command. If you can, then it is a
card related problem, if you can't, there is a good possibility that there is
something wrong with your cabling.</b><b></b></p>

<p><b>The device that we are attempting to communicate with is on
the other end of a router/gateway:<br />
If the device is not physically attached to the segment of cabling that you are
using, check to see if it has a gateway IP address set in the card. If it
doesn't then this could explain why it is not possible to communicate.</b></p>

<p><em><b>TCP/IP QUIZ </b></em><b></b></p>

<p><b>1)
Which of the following is a utility used to view current network settings for
all ip (nic) adapters on a device?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
winipcfg (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
ipconfig/winipcfg -- utilities used to view current network settings for all ip
(nic) adapters on a device; can be used to view the MAC address, IP address,
and gateway.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
2) Any traffic bound for a(n)  FTPTelnetSMTPDNSTFTPSNMP application uses
the standard port number 69 </b></p>

<p><b>? 
TFTP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
  <br />
3) If you want to map the name "highbury" to the IP address
120.5.235.0, which command would you use?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
ip host highbury 120.5.235.0 (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
X) Novell's suite of protocols IPX/SPX is the de facto standard for
internetwork communications and is the transport protocol for the Internet.</b></p>

<p><b>? 
False (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
TCP/IP is the de facto standard for internetwork communications and serves as
the transport protocol for the Internet, enabling millions of computers to
communicate globally.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
  <br />
5) What is the TCP/IP stack Internetwork Layer protocol that determines network
addresses when data link layer addresses are known?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
RARP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
6) Select the 3 layers of the OSI model most closely affected by TCP/IP Choose
all that apply.</b></p>

<p><b>? 
Layer 7 (correct answer) <br />
?  Layer 4 (correct answer) <br />
?  Layer 3 (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
The layers most closely affected by TCP/IP are Layer 7 (application), Layer 4
(transport), and Layer 3 (network). Included in these layers are other types of
protocols with a variety of purposes/functions, all of which are related to the
transfer of information <br />
  <br />
  <br />
7) 172.10.10.6/24 is another way of writing 172.10.10.6 255.255.255.0</b></p>

<p><b>? 
True (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
Both methods indicate that 8 bits have been borrowed from the Class B network
address</b></p>

<p><b><br />
Port numbers are used to keep track of different conversations that cross
the network at the same time.</b></p>

<p><b>? 
True (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
Both TCP and UDP use port (or socket) numbers to pass information to the upper
layers. Port numbers are used to keep track of the different conversations that
cross the network at the same time.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
9) What is the reliable connection-oriented TCP/IP stack Application Layer
protocol that deals with the transfer of files between systems?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
FTP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a reliable connection-oriented service that
uses TCP to transfer files between systems that support FTP. It supports
bi-directional binary file and ASCII file transfers.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
10) What is the unreliable connectionless TCP/IP stack Application Layer
protocol that enables users to remotely connect to routers to enter
configuration commands?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
Telnet (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
Telnet is a standard terminal emulation protocol used by clients for the
purpose of making remote terminal connections to Telnet server services;
enables users to remotely connect to routers to enter configuration commands.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
11) Any traffic bound for a(n)  FTPTelnetSMTPDNSTFTPSNMP application uses
the standard port number 25 </b></p>

<p><b>? 
SMTP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
12) Any traffic bound for a(n)  FTPTelnetSMTPDNSTFTPSNMP application uses
the standard port number 21 </b></p>

<p><b>? 
FTP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
13) What is the TCP/IP stack Internetwork Layer protocol that determines the
data link layer address for known IP addresses?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
ARP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
Feedback: To determine a destination MAC address for a datagram, a table called
the ARP cache is checked. If the address is not in the table, ARP sends a
broadcast that will be received by every station on the network, looking for
the destination station.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
1X) What is the TCP/IP stack Application Layer protocol that deals with Name
Management?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
DNS (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
Domain Naming System. System used in the Internet for translating names of
network nodes into addresses</b></p>

<p><b><br />
15) What is the TCP/IP stack Application Layer protocol that deals with remote
file access across a network?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
NFS (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
Network File System. As commonly used, a distributed file system protocol suite
developed by Sun Microsystems that allows remote file access across a network.
In actuality, NFS is simply one protocol in the suite. NFS protocols include
NFS, RPC, XDR (External Data Representation), and others. These protocols are
part of a larger architecture that Sun refers to as ONC.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
16) Which of the following is a utility used to troubleshoot NetBIOS name
resolution?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
NBTstat (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
NBTSTAT -- a utility used to troubleshoot NetBIOS name resolution; used to view
and remove entries from the name cache.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
17) What does the command "no ip domain-lookup" do?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
Turns off "Name to Address Translation" (NAT) on the router (correct
answer) </b></p>

<p><b>1
What does the "trace" command do?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
Finds failures in the path from source to destination (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
19) Any traffic bound for a(n)  FTPTelnetSMTPDNSTFTPSNMP application uses
the standard port number 53 </b></p>

<p><b>? 
DNS (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>20)
What is the TCP/IP stack Internetwork Layer protocol that provides control and
messaging capabilities?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
ICMP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
Internet Control Message Protocol. OSI Model Network layer Internet protocol
that reports errors and provides other information relevant to IP packet
processing.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
21) Which of the following is a utility that provides information about TCP/IP
statistics?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
NETstat (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
NETSTAT -- a utility that provides information about TCP/IP statistics; can be
used to provide information about the status of TCP/IP connections and
summaries of ICMP, TCP, and UDP.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
22) What is the TCP/IP stack Internetwork Layer protocol that provides
connectionless, best-effort delivery routing of datagrams?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
IP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
IP -- provides connectionless, best-effort delivery routing of datagrams; is
not concerned with the content of the datagrams; looks for a way to move the
datagrams to their destination</b></p>

<p><b><br />
23) Any traffic bound for a(n)  FTPTelnetSMTPDNSTFTPSNMP application uses
the standard port number 161 </b></p>

<p><b>? 
SNMP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
2X) The TCP/IP suite of protocols was developed by DARPA</b></p>

<p><b>? 
True (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
The TCP/IP suite of protocols was developed as part of the research done by the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It was originally developed
to provide communication through DARPA.</b></p>

<p><b><br />
25) What does the "telnet" command do?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
Verifies the application layer software between source and destination stations
(correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
26) What information does the "show hosts" command display?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
displays a cached list of host names and address (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
27) TCP/IP can only be used with LANs</b></p>

<p><b>? 
False (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
TCP/IP can be used with both LANs and WANs, it allows communication among a
variety of interconnected networks and is the de facto standard for the
Internet</b></p>

<p><b><br />
2 What does the command "ip domain-lookup" do?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
Turns on "Name to Address Translation" (NAT) on the router (correct
answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
29) Which of the following is a Layer 4 protocol that delivers traffic but
provides no checking and so has the advantage of speed?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
UDP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
UDP -- connectionless and unreliable; although responsible for transmitting
messages, no software checking for segment delivery is provided at this layer.
The advantage that UDP provides is speed. Since UDP provides no
acknowledgments, less traffic is sent across the network, making the transfer
faster. </b></p>

<p><b>30)
What is the TCP/IP stack Application Layer protocol that provides a means to
monitor and control network devices?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
SNMP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b><br />
Feedback: SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a protocol that provides
a means to monitor and control network devices, and to manage configurations,
statistics collection, performance and security.</b></p>

<p><b>  <br />
31) How many bits are there in an IP address?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
32 (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>  <br />
32) Which of the following is a diagnostic utility used to determine whether a
computer is properly connected to devices/Internet?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
PING (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
PING (Packet Internet Groper) is a diagnostic utility used to determine whether
a computer is properly connected to devices/Internet.</b></p>

<p><b>  <br />
33) Any traffic bound for a(n)  FTPTelnetSMTPDNSTFTPSNMP application uses
the standard port number 23 </b></p>

<p><b>? 
Telnet (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>  <br />
3X) Another name for a port number is "socket" number</b></p>

<p><b>? 
True (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>35) TCP
sequence and acknowledgment numbers provide sequencing of segments with a
forward reference acknowledgment; number datagrams before transmission; and
reassemble the segments into a complete message?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
True (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>36) The
TCP/IP protocol suite is important in networking because: Choose all that
apply.</b></p>

<p><b>? 
TCP/IP is a universally available protocol that you likely will use at work
(correct answer) <br />
?  TCP/IP is a useful reference for understanding other protocols because
it includes elements that are representative of other protocols. (correct
answer) <br />
?  TCP/IP is important because the router uses it as a configuration tool.
(correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
The function of the TCP/IP protocol stack, or suite, is the transfer of
information from one network device to another. In doing so, it closely maps
the OSI reference model in the lower layers, and supports all standard physical
and data link protocols</b></p>

<p><b>  <br />
37) Which of the following is a Layer 4 protocol that provides flow control and
sequencing?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
TCP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
TCP -- a connection-oriented, reliable protocol; provides flow control by
providing sliding windows, and reliability by providing sequence numbers and
acknowledgments.</b></p>

<p><b>  <br />
3 What is the unreliable connectionless TCP/IP stack Application Layer
protocol that deals with the transfer of files between systems?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
TFTP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) is a connectionless unreliable service
that uses UDP to transfer files between systems that support the TFTP. It is
useful in some LANs because it operates faster than FTP in a stable environment</b></p>

<p><b>  <br />
39) If a source is using a window size that is too large for the destination
and does not receive an acknowledgement from the destination it will resend its
data?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
True (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b> <br />
X0) How many bytes are there in an IP address?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
4 (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>  <br />
X1) How many octets are there in an IP address?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
4 (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>X2)
What is the TCP/IP stack Application Layer protocol that governs the
transmission of e-mail over computer networks?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
SMTP (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) governs the transmission of e-mail over
computer networks. It does not provide support for transmission of data other
than plain text.</b></p>

<p><b>  <br />
X3) Which of the following is a programme that traces the path a packet takes
to a destination?</b></p>

<p><b>? 
Trace (correct answer) </b></p>

<p><b>Feedback:
Traceroute traces the path a packet takes to a destination, and is used to
debug routing problems</b></p>

<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%">
<tbody><tr>
<td width="100%">
<h2>Quiz: TCP/IP</h2>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<p class="MsoNormal"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1032" type="#_x0000_t75"
alt="">
<v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\WORKST~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image008.gif"
o:href="http://media.techtarget.com/searchNetworking/images/spacer.gif"/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/WORKST%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image009.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1032" border="0" height="3" width="1" />
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>

<p class="MsoNormal"><o> </o></p>

<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%">
<tbody><tr>
<td width="100%">
<p class="MsoNormal"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1030" type="#_x0000_t75"
alt="">
<v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\WORKST~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image008.gif"
o:href="http://media.techtarget.com/searchNetworking/images/spacer.gif"/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/WORKST%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image008.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1030" border="0" height="1" width="1" />
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>

<p class="MsoNormal"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1031" type="#_x0000_t75"
alt="">
<v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\WORKST~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image008.gif"
o:href="http://media.techtarget.com/searchNetworking/images/spacer.gif"/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/WORKST%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image008.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1031" border="0" height="1" width="1" /><!--[endif]--><br />
<!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]--><br />


<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
<tbody><tr>
<td>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o> </o></p>
</td>
<td>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o> </o></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>

<p class="MsoNormal"><o> </o></p>

<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%">
<tbody><tr>
<td valign="top" width="100%">
<p class="MsoNormal"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1033" type="#_x0000_t75"
alt="DEFINITION">
<v:imagedata src="file:///C:\DOCUME~1\WORKST~1\LOCALS~1\Temp\msohtml1\01\clip_image010.gif"
o:href="http://media.techtarget.com/digitalguide/images/Misc/sdef_definition.gif"/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/WORKST%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image010.gif" alt="DEFINITION" v:shapes="_x0000_i1033" align="middle" border="0" height="8" width="53" /><!--[endif]-->- This week's
quiz has a slightly different format. Your goal will be to match the correct
term in the left-hand column with its description in the right-hand column. </p>
<p><i>How to take the quiz: <br />
- After reading the question, click on the answer that you think is correct
to go to the whatis.com definition. If the answer you ve chosen is correct,
you will see the question text somewhere in the defintion. <br />
OR <br />
- After reading the question, write down the letter of your answer choice on
scrap paper. Check your answers by using the answer key at the end of the
quiz.</i> </p>
<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%">
<tbody><tr>
<td valign="top" width="30%">
<p class="MsoNormal">.a) <a href="http://searchwebservices.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid26_gci214157,00.html">UDP</a>
<br />
.e) <a href="http://searchvoip.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid66_gci214031,00.html">Internet
Protocol</a> <br />
.f) <a href="http://searchwinit.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid1_gci213375,00.html">Winsock</a>
<br />
.h) <a href="http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci212736,00.html">packet</a>
<br />
.i) <a href="http://searchsmb.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid44_gci213047,00.html">stack</a>
<br />
.l) <a href="http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci213976,00.html">FTP</a>
<br />
.n) <a href="http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci212125,00.html">firewall</a>
<br />
.o) <a href="http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci212533,00.html">MBone</a>
<br />
 .t) <a href="http://searchvoip.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid66_gci213894,00.html">DHCP</a>
<br />
 .w) <a href="http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci213212,00.html">Transport
layer</a> <br />
<!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]--><br />

<p class="MsoNormal">DEFINE LATER??.. </p>
<p class="MsoNormal">j) <a href="http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci214172,00.html">Transmission
Control Protocol</a> <br />
k) <a href="http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci214297,00.html">ping</a>
<br />
p) <a href="http://searchsmb.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid44_gci211994,00.html">dot
address</a> <br />
q) <a href="http://searchsmb.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid44_gci213813,00.html">Border
Gateway Protocol</a> <br />
r) <a href="http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci213908,00.html">domain
name system</a> <br />
s) <a href="http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci214214,00.html">Server
Message Block Protocol</a></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">v) <a href="http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci213065,00.html">subnet</a></p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p class="MsoNormal">1._____ This is the
telecommunication protocol that all computers must use to be part of the
Internet. </p>
<p>2. _____This adaptation of the Berkeley
UNIX sockets interface (and its supporting program) handles input/output
requests for Internet applications that use Windows. </p>
<p>3._____ This works closely with a router
program to examine each network packet and determine whether it should be
forwarded toward its destination. </p>
<p>4._____ This is one of two protocols that
let a network administrator supervise and distribute IP addresses from a
central point. It automatically sends a new IP address when a computer is plugged
into a different place in the network. </p>
<p>5. _____This OSI layer divides a file
into segments that are an efficient size for routing. </p>
<p>6. _____This is an application protocol
that uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols to transfer Web page files to a server.
It's also used to download programs and other files from a server to your
computer. </p>
<p>7._____ Unlike TCP, this alternative
method of data exchange does not provide the service of dividing a message
into packets and reassembling it at the other end, but instead relies on
the application program to make sure that the entire message has arrived
and is in the right order. </p>
<p>8._____ This was set up in 1994 to form a
network within the Internet that could use TCP/IP to transmit multicasts of
audio and video data in much the same way that radio and TV programs are
broadcast over airwave. </p>
<p>9._____ This term is sometimes used to
describe the TCP/IP software. </p>
<p>10._____ Each one of these is separately
numbered, includes the Internet address of its destination, and travels by
different routes through the Internet.</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<p><b>ANSWER KEY:</b> 1E; 2F; 3N; 4T; 5W; 6L; 7A; 8O; 9I; 10H<b></b></p>
<p><b><o> </o></b></p>
<p><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
 </p>
<p><o> </o></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>

<p><b><o> </o></b></p>

<p><b><o> </o></b></p>

<p>1. How should you use the <st1:place>Ping</st1:place> utility to determine
whether the NIC in your local computer is functioning properly? (Select all choices
that are correct.) </p>

</div>

<br clear="all">


<div class="Section2">

<p>a. You should ping the local loopback address. </p>

<p>b. You should ping your local Internet Protocol (IP) address. </p>

<p>c. You should ping a node on your network. </p>

<p>d. You should ping a node on a remote network. </p>

</div>

<br clear="all">


<div class="Section3">

<p> </p>

<p>X. Which protocol allows hosts on a TCP/IP network to communicate using
either parallel or serial connections? (Select the best choice.) </p>

</div>

<br clear="all">


<div class="Section4">

<p>a. DHCP </p>

<p>b. PPP </p>

<p>c. SLIP </p>

<p>d. TCP </p>

</div>

<b><i></b>

<p><b><i>Answers: </i></b><i></i></p>

<p>1) Only choices <b>b</b>, <b>c</b> and <b>d</b> are correct. You should use
the <st1:place>Ping</st1:place> utility to ping the IP address of your local
computer, a node on your network or a node on a remote network to determine
whether the computer's NIC is functioning properly. If these troubleshooting
steps do not work, then you can try either reinstalling TCP/IP or installing a
new NIC in the computer. If you use the <st1:place>Ping</st1:place> utility to
ping the local loopback address of 127.0.0.1, then you can determine whether
the TCP/IP stack is properly configured on the local computer.<i> </i></p>

<p>X) Choice <b>b</b> is correct. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) allows hosts to
communicate by using TCP/IP over serial or parallel links. PPP is easy to
configure because, when a PPP client connects to a router, the router uses the
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign the client computer an
Internet Protocol (IP) address, a subnet mask and a default gateway. PPP is
more processor-intensive than its predecessor, Serial Line Internet Protocol
(SLIP). As the name suggests, SLIP is capable of serial communications only.
TCP/IP communications can be either connection-oriented or connectionless.
Connection-oriented communications, which guarantee packet delivery, are
performed by Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
provides connectionless communications, which are faster but are not guaranteed
to transmit successfully. </p>

<p><b><i>MISC
TERMS </i></b></p>

<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
<tbody><tr>
<td>
<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="1" width="100%">
<tbody><tr>
<td width="49%">
<p align="center"><strong>A</strong></p>
</td>
<td width="49%">
<p align="center"><strong>B</strong></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>TCP/IP enables communication among any</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>set of interconnected networks and is equally
well suited for both LAN and WAN communication</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>The function of the TCP/IP protocol stack, or
suite, is</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>the transfer of information from one network
device to another</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>DNS (Domain Name System) is a system used in
the Internet for</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>translating names of domains and their
publicly advertised network nodes into addresses</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>HOSTS</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>a file created by network administrators and
maintained on servers. They are used to provide static mapping between IP
addresses and computer names</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol)</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>governs the transmission of e-mail over
computer networks. It does not provide support for transmission of data
other than plain text</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>a protocol that provides a means to monitor
and control network devices, and to manage configurations, statistics
collection, performance and security</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>FTP (File Transfer Protocol)</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>a reliable connection-oriented service that
uses TCP to transfer files between systems that support FTP. It supports
bi-directional binary file and ASCII file transfers</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>a connectionless unreliable service that uses
UDP to transfer files between systems</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>is the Internet standard that supports the
exchange of information on the World Wide Web and supports many different
file types, including text, graphic, sound, and video</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>Telnet</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>a standard terminal emulation protocol used by
clients for the purpose of making remote terminal connections</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>PING (Packet Internet Groper)</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>a diagnostic utility used to determine whether
a computer is properly connected to devices/Internet.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>Traceroute</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>traces the path a packet takes to a
destination, and is used to debug routing problems</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>Windows-based protocol: NETSTAT</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>a utility that provides information about
TCP/IP statistics; can be used to provide information about the status of
TCP/IP connections and summaries of ICMP, TCP, and UDP.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>Windows-based protocol: ipconfig/winipcfg</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>utilities used to view current network
settings for all ip (nic) adapters on a device; can be used to view the MAC
address, IP address, and gateway</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p><b><i>The two transport layer protocols</i></b></p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>TCP and UDP</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>TCP</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>a connection-oriented, reliable protocol;
provides flow control by providing sliding windows, and reliability by
providing sequence numbers and acknowledgments</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>The advantage of TCP</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>it provides guaranteed delivery of the
segments</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>UDP</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>connectionless and unreliable; although
responsible for transmitting messages, no software checking for segment
delivery is provided at this layer</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>The advantage of UDP</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>speed</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>Protocols that use UDP</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>TFTP, SNMP, DNS, NFS</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>Port numbers</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>used to keep track of the different
conversations that cross the network at the same time</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>FTP port number</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>21</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>Telnet port number</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>23</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>DNS port number</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>53</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>Port numbers below 255 are</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>used for public applications</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>Port numbers above 1023 are</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>unregulated</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>TCP/IP Internet layer protocols</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>IP, ICMP, ARP, RARP</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>IP</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>provides connectionless, best-effort delivery
routing of datagrams</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>ICMP</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>provides control and messaging capabilities</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>ARP</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>determines the data link layer address for
known IP addresses</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>RARP</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>determines network addresses when data link
layer addresses are known</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>ICMP messages are carried in IP datagrams and
are used to</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>send error and control messages</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>If a router receives a packet that it is
unable to deliver to its final destination, the router</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>sends an ICMP unreachable message to the
source</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>If the destination address is not in the ARP
table, ARP sends</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>a broadcast that will be received by every
station on the network, looking for the destination station.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>The transport layer performs two functions:</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>Flow control, which is provided by sliding
windows and reliability, which is provided by sequence numbers and
acknowledgments</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>RARP relies on the presence of a</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>RARP server with a table entry or other means
to respond to RARP requests</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<p class="MsoNormal"></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="1" width="100%">
<tbody><tr>
<td width="49%">
<p align="center"><o> </o></p>
</td>
<td width="49%">
<p align="center"><o> </o></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>TCP/IP configuration utilities</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>Ipconfig, winipcfg, config, and ifconfig</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>TCP/IP Route-tracing utilities:</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>traceroute, tracert, and iptrace</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>TCP/IP utility Packet Internet groper</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>ping</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>TCP/IP utility Address Resolution Protocol</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>ARP</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>TCP/IP utility Reverse Address Resolution
Protocol</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>RARP</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p><st1:place>Ping</st1:place> can be used with either the hostname or the IP address
to test</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>IP connectivity</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p><st1:place>Ping</st1:place> works by sending an</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>ICMP echo request to the destination computer.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>If a computer receives an ICMP echo request or
pint it sends back</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>an ICMP echo reply message.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>It is possible to use <st1:place>Ping</st1:place> to
find the</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>IP address of a host when the name is known.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>MAC addresses are recognized in</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>the local network</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>ARP is the means by which networked computers
map</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to physical
hardware (MAC) addresses</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>ARP builds and maintains a table called the</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>ARP cache, which contains mappings of IP
address to MAC address.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>ARP provides the protocol rules for making the</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>IP - MAC correlation and providing address
conversion in both directions.</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>The ARP command arp -a</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>displays the cache</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>The ARP command arp -s</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>adds a permanent IP to MAC mapping</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>The ARP command arp -d</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>deletes an entry form the ARP cache</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>Machines that do not know their own IP
addresses use</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP).</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>RARP provides the rules by which the physical
machine in a LAN can</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>request to learn its IP address from a gateway
server Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table or cache</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>ARP maps</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>IP-to-MAC addresses</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>RARP maps</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>maps MAC-to-IP addresses</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top">
<p>returns the IP address for a given hostname or
find the host name for a specified IP address</p>
</td>
<td valign="top">
<p>NSLOOKUP</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<p class="MsoNormal"></p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>

<p>Transport >>> In the TCP/IP model this layer would deal with
reliability, flow control, and error correction.</p>

<p> TCP/IP >>> Common name for
the suite of protocols developed by the U.S. DoD in the 1970s to support the
construction of worldwide internetworks. TCP and IP are the two best-known
protocols in the suite<b></b></p>

<p><b>Protocols and
Standards:</b><b> Review Quiz Answers</b></p>

<p>1.) SNMP, SMTP, FTP,
TELNET, HTTP, NCP, SMB, and Appletalk are protocols that operate at the OSI <b>Application</b> layer.</p>

<p>2.) The <b>Presentation</b> layer encodes and converts user
information into binary data, also provides protocol conversion, encryption,
and compression.</p>

<p>3.) The<b> Session</b> layer opens manages, and closes
conversations between two computers. It performs name recognition and the
functions such as security, needed to allow two applications to comminicate
over the network, also provides error handling.</p>

<p>4.) The <b>Network</b> layer routes data packets across network
segments. Translates logical addresses and names into physical addresses.</p>

<p>5.)<b> IP</b> is the standard for data packet delivery over
the Internet. </p>

<p>6.)<b> UDP</b> runs on top of IP and is used as an
alternative to TCP. </p>

<p>7.)<b> SMTP</b> is used to tranfer mail messages between two
remote computers. It is used on the Internet, and is part of the TCP/IP protocol
stack.</p>

<p>9.) The first digit of a
Class <b>C</b> address will be a number between
192 and 223, the network ID start bit is 110 and their default subnet mask is
255. 255. 255.0 </p>

<p>10.) Most e-mail
applications use the <b>POP </b>protocol,
although some use the newer <b>IMAP</b>. </p>

<p>11.)<b> Telnet</b> is short for Telecommunication Network, a
virtual terminal protocol allowing a user logged on to one TCP/IP host to
access other hosts on the network. </p>

<p>12.) Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol is a <b>server</b>
service. When a DHCP server is configured on a network , clients that support
DHCP can request <b>TCP/IP</b> configuration
information from the server. </p>

<p>13.)<b> Domain Name System</b>, enables short alphabetical
names to be assigned to IP addresses to describe where a computer is located.</p>

<p>14.) The first digit of a
Class <b>B</b> address will be a number between
128 and 191, the network ID start bit is 10 and the default subnet mask is 255.
255.0.0 </p>

<p>15.) If the routers that
connect subnets are RFC 1542 compliant routers, the DHCP/<b>BOOTP</b> relay agent can provide IP addresses to
clients in multiple subnets. </p>

<p>16.) While <b>DNS</b> resolves host names to IP addresses, WINS
resolves <b>NetBIOS</b> names to IP addresses. </p>

<p>17.)<b> SNMP</b> uses small utility programs called agents to
monitor behavior and traffic on the network, in order to gather statistical
data.</p>

<p>18.) The first digit of a
Class <b>A</b> addresses will be a number
between 1 and 126, the network ID start bit is 0 and default subnet mask is
255.0.0.0</p>

<p>19.) A <b>gateway</b> is a device used to connect networks using
different protocols. </p>

<p>20.) A <b>subnet</b> mask is used to mask a portion of the IP
address, so that TCP/IP can tell the difference between the network ID and the
host ID.</p>

<p>21.) WAN technologies use
either <b>circuit</b> switching or <

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