The explosion of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and services has led to rapid expansion of IoT development, according to a Wednesday report from the Eclipse Foundation.

Growth of investments in markets including automotive, education, and building automation have fueled the rise of IoT developers, according to the report, which surveyed 1,717 professionals in this space. Two-thirds of developers surveyed said their organization develops and deploys IoT solutions today, or will do so in the next 18 months. Only 9% of respondents said that their organization has no plans for IoT development, the report found.

SEE: How to build a successful developer career (free PDF) (TechRepublic)

In terms of popular operating systems, Windows and FreeRTOS topped the list, while Linux dominated the most popular Edge/Gateway operating systems (76%), followed by Windows (52%), the report found. Debian and its derivatives (Raspbian and Ubuntu/Ubuntu Core) dominate the top Linux distributions used by IoT developers, chosen by at least a third of respondents.

The top three cloud platforms used by IoT developers were Amazon Web Services (AWS) (34%), Microsoft Azure (23%), and Google Cloud Platform (20%)–the same as last year, reflecting the larger cloud market share, the report noted.

Despite the massive growth in IoT development, several challenges remain. Developers named security (38%), connectivity (21%), and data collection and analytics (19%) as top concerns with IoT, followed by performance (18%), privacy (18%), and integration (18%).

Top IoT programming languages

The report broke out the top IoT programming languages in the following categories:

Constrained devices

  1. C
  2. C++
  3. Java
  4. JavaScript

Gateways and edge nodes

  1. Java
  2. Python
  3. C++
  4. C

IoT cloud

  1. Java
  2. JavaScript
  3. Python
  4. PHP

For more, check out TechRepublic’s How to become an IoT developer: 6 tips.