Journal of Computing
An ad hoc mobile network is a collection of mobile nodes that are dynamically and arbitrarily located in such a manner that the interconnections between nodes are capable of changing on a continual basis. Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) is extremely challenging because of MANETs dynamic features, its limited bandwidth and power energy. The routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. Routing is a challenging task in ad hoc network due to mobility of nodes that frequently changes network topology. Nature-inspired algorithms (swarm intelligence) such as Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms have shown to be a good technique for developing routing algorithms for MANETs.