Tutorial: How to create and correctly employ Word tabs

Learning how to use tabs correctly is the best way to ensure that columnar data stays where you put it.

The term tab, within the context of Microsoft Word's usage, can be a noun or a verb. A tab stop is a horizontal marker. To tab means to move the cursor to a tab stop by pressing the Tab key. Over time, we've dropped stop from the noun, but you might still see it referred to that way. Used properly, tabs are helpful. Used carelessly, tabs can totally wreck a document. Today, we'll discuss the proper way to set and employ tabs.

About tabs

You can add or delete tabs and you can manipulate the way text aligns to them. Word's default tabs are positioned every half-inch (or the equivalent of the unit of measurement you're using) or every five spaces.

Perhaps the easiest way to manipulate tabs is to use the horizontal ruler. If yours isn't visible, click the View tab and check Ruler in the Show group. In Word 2003, choose Ruler from the View menu. The tab selector is in the top-left corner of the document screen. Using this selector, you can add the following tab types:

  • Left: Left-aligns text to the tab.
  • Center: Centers the text around the tab.
  • Right: Right-aligns text to the tab.
  • Decimal: Aligns decimal numbers by the decimal point.
  • Bar: Draws a vertical line.
  • First Line Indent: Inserts an indent marker that indents only the first line in a paragraph.
  • Hanging Indent: Inserts an indent marker that indents all lines but the first line.

Technically, the bar tab on the first line and hanging indents aren't tabs, but you can use the tab selector to add them. We won't discuss them today.

The left tab is the default setting. Click the selector to cycle through the different settings in the above order. To insert a tab, use the selector to indicate the tab type and then click anywhere on the ruler. Word will add the tab to the current paragraph(s) and any new paragraphs. To delete a tab, simply drag it off the ruler.

In the images below, you can see the a simple list using all of the different tabs. Let's walk through the process of adding a decimal tab:

  1. Select the list.
  2. Click the tab selector until you've selected decimal.
  3. Click the horizontal ruler at 2 inches.
  4. Position the cursor in the first row, between the colon character and the dollar sign.
  5. Press tab.
  6. Repeat the process for all the lines in the list.

The right and decimal tabs have similar results, but only because all of the values have two decimal places. Sometimes it's easier to work with tabs if you can see them. To do so, click Show/Hide in the Paragraph group on the Home tab (or on Word 2003's Formatting toolbar). The right arrows are tab indicators.

Bad tab fixes

When you don't understand how to insert and use tabs, you can make bad decisions. The following fixes are a bad idea:

  • Don't use the first tab to indent a paragraph. Use the first line indent property for that.
  • Don't press tab more than once between two blocks of text. If an existing tab isn't wide enough, create a new tab that is.
  • Don't use spaces to separate columnar items.

Any of the above fixes might look fine initially, but if you change the text or font, your columns will no longer line up correctly. Create the right tabs and use them - it will save you from future problems.

Need more precision

Adding tabs via the ruler is easy, but it won't always be adequate. In this case, you might need the Tabs dialog. Using this dialog, you can quickly type in a tab position, choose a tab type, and even add leaders. Use one of the following methods to access this dialog:

  • Double-click any tab on the ruler.
  • In Word 2007/2010, click the Paragraph group's dialog launcher (on the Home tab). Then, click the Tabs button (bottom-left corner).
  • In Word 2003, choose Tabs from the Format menu.