Developers who specialize in skills related to building web sites and services are among the top earning programmers.
Those working on back and front end web technologies occupied three of the five spots for high-earning programmers in 2018, according to figures from careers site Dice.
The findings chime with an earlier salary round-up from recruitment company Hays, which also found companies were willing to pay a premium for experienced web developers.
One caveat, however, is that large salaries seem reserved for web developers with a proven track record working with front or back end software frameworks for building web sites and services. In contrast, Hays' figures suggest junior web developers are relatively poorly paid compared to other programmers.
Here are the five developer roles that Dice found had high average salaries during 2018.
1.Back end developer - $118,251
These developers specialize in writing code that runs on web servers and that underpins online sites and services.
2. Full-stack developer- $116,951
Unfortunately full-stack developer is somewhat of a nebulous title, as it is applied to so many different developer roles.
One abiding feature of a request for a full-stack developer is that the developer is skilled in everything related to a specific role, be it "cloud engineering" or building distributed systems, with front and back end skills spanning different languages, frameworks, and associated technologies.
Often it's used in connection with a web developer who is familiar both with front end UI frameworks such as Angular and React and backend frameworks such as Express.js and databases like MongoDB. Sometimes it also extends to knowledge of how to spin up and manage infrastructure on a public cloud platform.
However, it's not restricted to web development, and can also be found being applied to postings seeking skills related to Python, Java and other languages.
3. Java developer - $114,780
Java has long been favored for building for enterprise software, and remains widely used and a well-paid skill, having been the language of choice for writing server-side business software for more than decade.
Outside of servers, Java is also an official language used for developing Android apps, and has been used to build games and web apps for many years.
The language is sometimes viewed unfavorably compared to the newer language Kotlin, which is sometimes viewed as a replacement for Java, particularly in Android development.
Kotlin was described by a Netflix senior software engineer as offering "some of the best features of other languages" combined with "interoperability with Java".
4. Python developer - $109,202
In 2017, developer hub Stack Overflow declared Python to be the world's fastest-growing programming language, fuelled largely by the explosion of interest in machine learning and Python's popularity among the burgeoning number of data scientists. A recent Kaggle survey of 16,000 data professionals found that Python was now their programming language of choice.
Outside the language's role in big-data analytics, Python is highly versatile, used for everything from building web and desktop apps to writing scripts to orchestrate system operations.
As a first language Python code is relatively easy to read and understand, supports multiple programming paradigms, has a wide range of software libraries that can be dropped into code, and can be scaled to large applications. There are many high-quality free tutorials, courses and videos available online.
On the flipside, Python is often criticized for its slow performance, for being a poor choice for mobile development, and for limitations in how it handles database access.
5. Web developer - $102,689
As mentioned, salaries for web development vary hugely, with entry-level jobs being particularly poorly paid.
- Six in-demand programming languages: getting started (free PDF) (TechRepublic)
- Programming languages: Your best options (ZDNet)
- How to become a developer: A cheat sheet (TechRepublic)
- Want to learn programming? This startup pays you cryptocurrency to study Python (ZDNet)
- 10 popular programming languages developers should learn in 2019 (TechRepublic)
Nick Heath is chief reporter for TechRepublic. He writes about the technology that IT decision makers need to know about, and the latest happenings in the European tech scene.